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68 Cards in this Set

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Genetic sex is determined _
Right after fertilization
Describe path of germ cells
Epiblast - yolk sac - dorsal mesentery - genital ridge in lumbar region
What contributes to gonad
Germ cells
Coelomic epithelium = splanchnic mesoderm
Mesenchyme = undifferentiated connective tissue
Primitive sex cords are _
undifferentiated gonads
Primitive sex cords become_
Medullary cords
What encodes testis determining factor
SRY gene
In males cords become_
Sertoli cells + seminiferous tubules, straight tubules, rete testis
In testis mesenchymal cells become_
Leydig cells
Hydrocele is caused by _
Patent process vaginalis
In female cortical cords give rise to _
follicular cells
_ same as process vaginalis in males
Canal of Nuck
What keeps mesonephric duct intact in males
Testosterone
Two factors that directly regulate development of ducts
Testosterone - Leydig cells
Mullerian inhibiting factor - Sertoli cells
Which ducts persist in males
Mesonephric
Remnant of paramesonephric duct in males
Utricule of prostate
Which ducts persist in females
Paramesonephric
Remnants of mesonephric duct in females
Epoophoron
Paroophoron
Gartners cyst in vagina
Seminal vesicles come from _
Intermediate mesoderm
Prostate is an outgrowth of _
bladder
Urogenital sinus + urethra come from _
Endoderm (allantois)
Lower 1/3 of vagina comes from _
Upper 2/3 from _
Endoderm
Intermediate mesoderm
UG folds : in male and female
Male - floor of penile urethra
Female - labia minora
Genital swellings : in male and female
Male - scrotum
Female - labia majora
Genital tubercle : in male and female
Male - penis
Female - clitoris
UG sinus : male and female
Male - urethra and prostate
Female - urethra and vagina
Phenotypic sex depends on
MIF
Testosterone
Dihydrotestosterone
Critical timing
Turners symdrome
XO
Germ cells degenerate after they reach gonadal ridge
Ovaries do not form but rather ovarian streaks
Genitalia female but infantile
Hermaphroditism is _
discrepancy between morphology of gonads and external genitalia
True hermaphrodites
Very rare
XX
Both testicles and ovaries
Male hermaphrodite
From inadequate production of testosterone and MIF
XY
Female hermaphrodite
Masculinization of genitalia due to excessive aandrogens
Most common cause - congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Klinefelter syndrome
XXY
Males, small testes, long limbs, gynecomastia, low IQ
Androgen insensitivity
Genetically males but tissues in body do not react to testosterone
No uterus, testes are in abdomen or inguinal canal
Epispadias
Urethral opening on top of penis
Hypospadias
Urethral opening on bottom of penis
3 stages of kidney development
Pronephros
Mesonephros
Metanephros
Mesonephros gives _
weeks 4 - 8
Mesonephric tubules
Mesonephric (Wolffian) duct
2 parts of mature kidney
Ureteric bud
Metanephric mesoderm
Ureteric bud forms _
Ureter
Renal pelvis
minor and major calyx
pyramids with collecting tubules
Metanephric mesoderm forms _
Nephrons
Bowmnas capsule
Proximal and distal convoluted tubules
Loop of Henle
What causes metanephric tissue to differentiate
Collecting tubules
Changes in position of kidney
Develops in pelvis
Undergoes :
Rotation
Migration
Loose lobulation
Sources of blood for kidney
First, internal iliac --> lower and upper aorta
Cloaca is divided by _ in _
Urorectal septum
Urogenital sinus
Anal canal
Urinary bladder comes from _
Allantois
Urachus becomes _
Median umbilical ligament
Trigone is _
fusion of mesonephric ducts in endoderm
Epithelum of bladder comes from _
Mesonephric ducts from _
Endoderm
Mesoderm
Polycystic kidney
Numerous cyst within kidney - becomes large --> renal failure --> kidney transplant
Renal agenesis
More common in males and on left side - ureteric bud fails to contact metanephric mesoderm
Pelvic kidney
As kidney go up in abdomen they pass umbilical arteries and get trapped there
Horseshoe kidney
fusion of metanephric mesoderm
Normal ascent stopped by IMA
Exstrophy of bladder
Ventral body wall defect
mucosa exposed to exterior
Lack of mesodermal migration into region between genital tubercle and umbilicus
Urachal fistula
Lumen of allantois doesnt close
Abnormal opening of bladder to outside, leakage of urine through umbilicus
Functions of placenta
Protection
Nutrition
Respiration
Excretion
Hormone production
Fetal part of placenta is called
Chorion
3 parts of chorion
Cytotrophoblast
Syncytiotrophoblast
Extraembryonic mesoderm
Maternal part of placenta
Decidua
Endometrium
3 parts of decidua
Decidua basalis - immediately under implantation site, where villi are
Decidua capsularis - covers embryo
Decidua parietalis - everything else
Decidua parietalis and capsularis will fuse and you will not be able to distinguish
Decidual reaction
Histologic change of endometrium, prevents complete invasion of uterus by placenta
Differentiate villi
Primary - syncytio + cytotrophoblast in middle
Secondary - + mesoderm
Tertiary - + blood vessels (umbilical)
Cotyledon
Pouch like projections of fetal placenta
What bursts when waters break
Amniochorionic membrane
Placental circulation
Umbilical arteries --> chorionic arteries --> capillary bed --> umbilical vein
Placenta accreta
Invasion of myometrium by placenta (decidual reaction doesnt work)
Placenta percreta
Placenta fully penetrates myometreium and attaches to uterine wall, cant deliver placenta, will have huge hemorrhage
Functions of yolk sac
Primordial gut
Blood development
Germ cells
Nutrients
Function of allantois
Blood formation
Bladder