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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
neural plate cells are
columnar, versus ectoderm cells which are cuboidal
mesoderm alongside notochord is
notochord important for
inducing development of other structures: neurotube-brain-face
size of what part of occipital bone critical
foramen magnum, so that spinal cord is not compressed
group of people genetically different that compression of spinal cord more common in, and why
achondroplastic dwarfs, because foramen magnum too small, putting pressure on spinal cord
what is a somite
visibly segmented mesoderm
skull and facial bones derived from
neural crest cells: ectoderm from area (more headwards than somites)
vault of skull created from
unsegmented mesoderm
base of skull created from
bifid abnormality of notochord means
two brains, two faces
occipital bone and vertebrae form from
portion of somite which forms bones – which bones?
ventromedial somite: sclerotome, forms ribs and vertebrae
how many sclerotomes make one vertebrae, and why?
sclerotomes all fuse together, then resegment into individual vertebrae. They resegment half a segment lower than the orig. somite, with discs in between vertebrae
when vertebrae are joined, problem occurred how?
failure of resegmentation
problems with bony bar resegmentation may lead to?
spinal curvature
part of sclerotome fails to develop normally, may cause?
side to side deformity
3 scoliosis causes
bone, muscle or nerve problems. Leads to rib chgs, etc.
spina bifida occurs where?
anywhere along the spinal cord
spina bifida is
separation of vertebral elements in the midline
spina bifida effects
CNS, bone, skull, vertebrae, and meninges
3 kinds of spina bifida
occulta, meningocele, myelomeningocele
particular fluid problem assoc. with spina bifida
produces CSF fine, but can’t drain it. Can cause hydrocephaly
spina bifida occulta
sometimes covered with hair. can be prone to back ache, esp. with lifting
spina bifida aperta meningocele – def. & treatment
bony defect, plus problem with meningeal sac-keep sterile, and nip off, otherwise infections.
spina bifida aperta myelo-meningocele
spinal cord, meninges, and bony defects – very serious
problems with SBmyelo-mening
cover up- infection risk. 90% have hindbrain problems, can’t drain CSF. Need to put tap in brain or hydrocephalus.
If myelomeningocele not treated?
will die within weeks
Lorber’s paradox?
Spina bifida: aggressive treatment doesn’t mean fewer handicaps, but more survivors with worse handicaps.
Neurosurgeon fixes what in myelomeningocele cases?
closes defect. assess/fix hydrocephalus. (fixes drainage problem of brain)
usual blockage in myelomeningocele patients?
How is hydrocephalus ‘fixed’
shunt behind ear to drain CSF. tap installed
problems with brain in myelo meningocele patients
traction on cranial and upper cervical nerves cause abnormal ventilation, poor head control, vocal cord paralysis, dysphagia
with myelomeningocele, assume what with regard to defect
assume paralysis below defect. Any non-paralysis is a bonus.
orthopedic involvment with myleomeningocele patients
maximize mobility however possible: have stand if they can stand, cut muscles and tendons if nec. so they can sit. unlock joints. Treat deformities: scoliosis, kyphosis, Lordosis etc.
Other problems of myleomeningocele?
fecal incontinence, inefficient bladder emptying (can cause infection). These cause psychological problems…