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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How was religion and important factor in life in the 16th and 17th centuries in England? e.g. what did it affect?
Religion affected the beliefs, values and assumptions of individuals and society.
When was the Elizabethan Settlement?
What did the Settlement do?
re-established the Anglican Church as the official religion of England.
What kind of church did Elizabeth need to appease her Protestant supporters at home i.e in England?
a Church with uniform doctrine and a committed clergy
What kind of Church did Elizabeth need to appease foreign powers and moderate opinion in England?
A church with a traditional and Catholic appearance
The 'new' Church of England was to be a ......
Protestant Church
What doctrine wld the church have?
What would the church structure be like?
it wld reflect the Catholic hierarchy, such as governance of the church by bishops.
The Settlement was established by 2 Acts. what were these called?
The Act of Supremacy, and
The Act of Uniformity
What did the Act of Supremacy do? (2 things).
Elizabeth replaced the Pope as leader of the church and required all clergy to take a personal oath of loyalty to her.
What under the act of supremacy put Eliz in control and so temporarily pleased the Protestants?
the personal oath of loyalty clergy were required to take for Elizabeth.
What was Eliz's title under the Act of Supremacy?
How did this offer the Catholics some consolation?
Supreme Governor.
This was differnt to the title the pope had previously had "Supreme Head", offering the Catholics some consolation.
What did the Act of Uniformity do?
established a new Protestant prayer book to worship.
It contained compromises for both Catholics and Puritans.
What were Catholic bishops in the house of lords, who had been appointed by Mary I, opposed to?
any changes to papal supremacy and the doctrine of transubstantiation.
within wat time frame were the acts enforced?
and wat happened to the catholic bishops in the house of lords? *they had been appointed by Mary I)
within a month
all but one of the bishops resigned. They were replaced by men of Protestant background altho they were strictly limited by the Queen's power under the Act of Supremacy.
What were the monarch's reigns preceeding Elizabeth characterised by?
during the various monarchs' reign's preceeding Elizabeth there was a period or religious turmoil and change.
What year did Henry VIII ascend to the English throne?
What did he estab?
He estab the Anglican Church with himself as head, retaining many of the Catholic practices.
When did Henry die?
Who now came to the throne?
Changes to church?
His son Edward VI
Eng remained Protestant but many Catholic practices were removed.
When did Edward VI die?
Who now became the monarch?
Changes to church?
Mary I became Queen
Mary returned Eng to Catholicism and treated many Protestants harshly.
When did Elizabeth become Queen?
What was there an expectation about?
an expectation that she would settle the Religious Question.
Why was presumed wld replace Catholicism when Eliz came to the throne?
Why (2 reasons)
a new national church
Eliz herself favoured a Protestant church - she herself had been educated a protestant.
Also during the reign of Mary I, England had supported a devastating war against France. this combined with Mary's religious intolerance had caused a widespread public reaction against Catholicism.
How did Eliz appease the catholics in her religious settlement?
How did she appease the Puritans?
by retaining bishops, Catholic courts, Catholic rituals and vestments.

by having Calvinist doctrine.
When and who by were the 39 Articles issued?
What did they do?
From here on what did Elizabeth do, what was the result of this?
1563, issued by an assembly of bishops and lower clergy.
splet out the doctrine and wound up the religious settlement.
Blocked attempts at further change causing growing frustration. This resulted in a divided church and the proceding decades were characterised by religious opposition.
What did Puritans want the church to be stripped of?
All Catholic elements.
Why did Puritans object to ornate vestments clergy were to wear?
believed clergy shld nt set themselves aside by wearing these.
When Puritan clergy refused to wear the ornate vestments what was Elizabeth's counteraction?
Archbishop Parker in 1565 - 6 published the Book of Advertisements on order of Elizabeth claiming that clergy who did no wear the vestments would b sacked.
What did Puritans want removed from the Prayer Book?
Catholic elements
What action did Puritans take in terms of the Prayer Book?
Eliz counter-action?
1571 William Strickland introduced a bill to have the offensive elements removed.
The Privy Council, however, ordered the bill to be removed.
When and what did Elizabeth do to suppress the Puritan movement?
1576 Elizabeth wanting to suppress the Puritan movement, ordered Archbishop Grindal of Canterbury to do so. He refused however and so was suspended from office. His successor, John Whitgift conducted a harsh, disciplinary campaign against Puritans.
When did the Puritans publish the Marprelate Tracts?
What were these?
Eliz counter-action?
1588 -9 Puritans published the Marprelate Tracts.
These contained a vicious attack on the clergy proclaiming them greedy and immoral.
Strong action was taken with the alleged authors of the Marprelate Tracts executed.
Complete this sentace:

"Elizabeth had controlled Puritan opposition so that by the end of her reign...
the movement was broken."
What was Catholic opposition a more serious threat to?
Elizabeth and her national uniform church
In the 1st decade of Eliz reign 1558-9 thr wr few probs of Cath opposition.

Caths either attended the official church services as they were required to by law, or those who refused were required to pay recusancy fines as punishment.
What event meant Eliz now was to experience increased opposition from the Catholics?
the arrival of Mary Queen of Scots in England in 1568.
What religion was Mary Queen of Scots?
How was she Eliz's most likely successor?
Her grandmother's brother was Henry VIII (Eliz's father).
What Catholic opposition occurred in 1569?
The Northern Rebellion. Catholics in the North of England raised a force and attempted to replace Eliz with the Cath Mary Queen of Scots.
This was a failure and the rebels wr executed. Eliz thought Mary had plotted against her although there was no proof.
What Cath opposion occurred in 1570?
What was it meant to do?
Papal Bull, excommunicated Eliz and declared her a usurper (Illegal ruler).
It was designed to give Eng Caths encouragement in future rebellions after the failure of Norther Rebellion in 1569.
However, all it really did was force Caths to choose b/w their faith or the queen.
Wat did Eliz do in response to Mary Q of Scots arrival in Eng 1568, the Northern Rebellion 1569 and the Papal Bull 1570?

What was the 1571 Treasons Act?
anti-Catholic Laws were strengthened.

1571 Treasons Act made it treason to introduce a Papal Bull into England and to call the Queen a usurper or heretic.
Evidence was finally gained against Mary Q of Scots after further plots had occurred.

what was the plot that uncovered her involvement?

1586 Babington Plot. Mary, altho in prison, was discovered to have been communicating with Anthony Babington, a Cath who planned to murder Eliz.
Despite Mary denying everything in her trial she was found guilty and executed in 1587
In the years following the execution of Mary Q of Scots, wat was increased and why?
Why were many Caths left finacially crippled?
Why could Caths not obtain jobs?
"Eliz had managed to control Cath opposition so that by the end of her reign...
Anti-Catholic legislation , as the Spanish military threat continued.
Due to the steadily increased recusancy fines.
Bcoz they were barred from royal office.
it had all but died out."
What has there been considerable disagreement b/w historians about?
whether Eliz got the settlement she wanted and to the extend the settlement was a compromise.
What is the contempory historical view?
John Foxe, a contempory, thought the main opposition to the settlement was from Caths. His evidence for this was Eliz in her 1st few months as Queen made a public display of her "Protestantism" e.g. leaving a church service as it was too Catholic.
What is the tradition histiography view?
Sir John Neale thought Eliz was forced into a more Protestant settlement than she wanted by a radical group of Protestants in the Commons. He based this on that approximately 1/4 of the Commons acted together to force the Queen into the settlement.
Revisionist histiography view?
Norman Jones thought the settlement reflected Eliz own religious views and that the main opposition was from Caths in the House of Lords. The settlement did contain elements of compromise, altho Eliz's unwillingness to allow later Parliaments to discuss the settlement shows her general satisfaction.