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9 Cards in this Set

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nonrestrictive clauses
A clause that does not serve to identify or define the antecedent noun.

They are parenthetica; they are set off with comas.

One can split nonrestrictive clauses and the main clause into two sentences. ()

The audience, WHICH AT FIRST HAD BEEN INDIFFERENT, became more and more interested.

The audience was indifferent. Later it became more interested.

The nonrestrictive clause above doesn't limit or define, it merely adds something.
restrictive clauses
Define or describe the antecedent noun.

Are NOT parenthetical; they are NOT set off with commas; the CANNOT be separated from the main clause to form two sentences.()
People WHO LIVE IN GLASS HOUSES shouln't throw stones.

The restrictive clause defines "people" and cannot be separated to form two sentences.
Independent clauses should be connected with ________
a semicolon

It is nearly half past five; we cannot reach town before dark.

ADVERBS () inserted before the second clause don't change the punctuation; a semicolon is still required.

BUT if a conjunction is added, the COMMA is the correct punctuation.

It is nearly half past five, and we cannot reach town before dark.

EXCEPT when the sentences are brief or conversation in tone.
HOWEVER, the SEMICOLON is the prefered punctuation.
adverbs: accordingly, besides, then, therefore, thus
Characteristics of a Colon
Tells the reader that what follows is closely related to the preceeding clause.

Has more EFFECT than a COMMA


Less POWER TO SEPARATE than a SEMICOLON

More FORMALITY than a DASH
When to use a COLON
After an independent clause to
- introduce a list of particulars
- an appositive ()
- an amplification ()
- an illustrative quotation
appositive: a word, phrase, or clause usually located after a nominal that describes, identifies, or explains the nominal.

Aplification: "But even so, there was a directness and dispatch about animal burial: there was no stopover in the undertaker's foul parlor, no wreath or spray."
When to use a DASH
Use a dash to:
- set off an abrupt break or interruption
- to announce a long appositive
or summary
Characteristics of a DASH
STRONGER than a COMMA

LESS FORMAL than a COLON

MORE RELAXED than PARENTHESES
___ determines the number of the verb
The number of the subject

NOT intervening words()
a compound subject made of two or more nouns requires ______ verb
plural

EXCEPT if the nouns are connected to the verb by:
- with
- as well as
- in addition to
- except
- together with
- no less than