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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Comparison
emphasizes likenesses
Contract
emphasizes differences
ARGUMENTATIVE STRATEGY
used to defend, refute claims
COMPARISON - device for claims of value
- argue 1 thing better/worse than other
Comparison/Contrast Essays
Compares two things belonging to the same general class (significant characteristics ->same magnitude
Length ->methods for developing definition
(personal narrative, examples, stipulation, comparison, contrast, cause-and-effect analysis, cultural context, personal history, values, behavior)
Negation
what term is NOT (negative definition) - then must define what term is
METHODS FOR DEFINING TERMS (pg 116-120)
(CAN USE ALL IN AN ESSAY)

(DSNEE) Dictionary Definition. Stipulation, Negation, Examples, Extended Definition
Dictionary Definition
simplest (pg 116)
May be too narrow, too broad
Stipulation (pg 116)
accept definition different from conventional
- limits or control argument
Examples
most effective (method for defining terms)real/hypothetical
Extended Definition
Length ->methods for developing definition (personal narrative, examples, stipulation, comparison, contrast, cause-and-effect analysis, cultural context, personal history, values, behavior)
Defining Vague and Ambiguous Terms (pg 114)

Arguments of value and policy
-> abstract terms require clarification (freedom, justice, patriotism, equality, free speech, family, success)
DEFINING THE TERMS IN YOUR ARGUMENT
ARGUMENTS (CONTROVERSIAL QUESTIONS)
->TURN TO ARGUMENTS ABOUT DEFINITION OF TERMS
2 PURPOSES OF DEFINITION
Clarify -> vague/ambiguous terms, Method ->develop whole essay
Judgments
create Definitions
Definitions
influence Judgments
->change nature of event or a “fact”
DEFINING THE TERMS IN YOUR ARGUMENT
ARGUMENTS (CONTROVERSIAL QUESTIONS)
->TURN TO ARGUMENTS ABOUT DEFINITION OF TERMS
Credibility
***most important element in arguer’s ability is....
->to persuade audience
How do you provide credibility?
1) submit good evidence
2) thoughtful/judicious tone ->fair in conclusion
3) clean, literate, well-organized paper àevidence of care in writing/proofreading
The Audience (pg 13)
does what?
* All arguments ->audience in mind
The Warrant (pg 11) does what?
(**underlie all claims!!)
MORE GENERAL STATEMENT THAN THE CLAIM!
Warrant -> what kind of assumption?
inference/assumption, belief or principle ->taken for granted
->guarantee of reliability, soundness (relationship/claim)
->stated, unstated
If second speaker accepts evidence they also have to accept what?
Also has to accept warrant - evidence cannot support claim if authors not credible
give example of claim, support and warrant
CLAIM: veg diet ->longer life
SUPPORT: author of xxx say so
WARRANT: authors of xx reliable, experts of subject
give example of claim, support and warrant
CLAIM: marijuana law illegal repeal it
SUPPORT: people right to choose
WARRANT: no law should prevent rights
The Support (pg 11)
Support -
Materials Materials -> (EA), Evidence, Motivational appeals
->by arguer ->convince audience ->claim sound
Evidence (data) -> (FST)
facts, statistics, testimony
Motivational appeals ->
to values/attitudes of audience ->win support -> claim
(hint: offer stats, appeal to individual generosity)
CLAIM (proposition) - What are you trying to prove? (page 10)
v
What are Claims of Fact?
(support by data (true, inference, educated guess))
Condition -> existed, exists, will exist
What are Facts or data?
-> audience will accept -> objectively verifiable
Ex - epidemic not unique, racing dangerous support, weather getting colder

Claims of Value (approve/disapprove)
Attempt to prove -> things more desirable than others
Ex - opera good listening, football dehumanizing, ending a patients life
What are Claims of Policy?
(***analysis ->both fact/value)
Policies ->solutions to problems
**** (expression should, must, ought in statement)
Ex - prisons should be abolished because…, establish policies to bring…., women should appear…
What are the ARGUMENT parts
-> (CSW) Claim, Support, Warrant
What are? The Terms of Argument (pg 9)
Argument ->importance to logical appeals
>difference ->emphasis
Persuasion -> element of ethical, emotional appeals

Acceptance ->based on logical, emotional appeals
What is the (BASIS OF DEMOCRATIC ORDER)!!!!!!
Argument à Civilizing Influence
Why Study Argument?
Rules
__>define terms, evaluate evidence, Arrive Conclusions cross disciplinary lines
Provides Tools àDistinguish (true/false, Valid, invalid, claims)
Chapter 1 - Understanding Argument
Nature of Argument
Argumentation (IRA), what are the reasons to argue?
Influence others w/Reasoned discourse àmake them Act as we wish (pg 4)
What is Language responsible -> shaping attitudes & feelings ?
-> emotive language
(expresses/arouses emotions)
Connotation
meanings we attach to a word apart from its explicit definition
Euphemism
polite substitute word for an item
SLANTING
-> interpreting or presenting in line with a special interest (almost always negative)
Abstract
->qualities apart from particular things and events (beauty in the eye of the beholder) (honesty)
WRITING A STORY (enhance by details, examples and anecdotes)(tell what conclusions we have arrived at; details tell us how we got there)
)(common problem is omision of details)
Concrete
- real objects & experiences (beautiful roses)(returning money to owner)
ARGUMENTS
Arguments
- use concrete and extensive abstractions
Abstractions ->arguments of value & policy are important why?
1) represent qualities, characteristics, and values that the writer is explaining, defending or attacking
2) enable writer to make generalizations about his or her data
SHORT CUTS
->arguments ->depend on readers’ responses to words
-.emotive language
-often mistaken for valid argument
(cliches/slogans)
CLICHES
->expression/idea stale->overused
Cliches of thought -
conventional rule or method for doing something (applied or repeated without thought) )Ex- GENERATION X
Mass language - ready -made answers, stereotyped solutions response reader expected without giving him a reason for response
ready -made answers, stereotyped solutions response reader expected without giving him a reason for response
Shortcomings of slogans (3)
1) brevity ->disadvantages (ignores exception/negative instance) in absolute terms without describing circumstances
2) conceal unexamined warrants. (made in America -> warrants unconvincing - better economy, better goods, jobs)
3) how to achieve objectives
3 types of legal reasoning
deductive, inductive, reasoning by analogy
Syllogism
term that describes a particular logical relationship between two arguments (basic form is deductive)
Syllogism consists of what 3 parts
major premise (broad), minor premise (narrower), conclusion
Deductive brings conclusion how?
Major premise & minor premise worded so naturally bring conclusion
Deductive is also called what and how does it work?
transitivity (If 2 different things equal to same thing then also equal to each other)
legal syllogisms(deductive) and inductive are not based on what?
Not based on absolute truths
Inductive works to conclusion how?
by asserting a series of minor premises to support the conclusion, a major premise (underlies much of case analysis)