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34 Cards in this Set

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What is the definition of an electrolyte?
A substance that becomes an ion when dissolved and has the ability to conduct electricity.
What are the physical properties of an electrolyte?
Why is it essential that there be a balance of electrolytes in the body?
In order to allow normal function of cells, tissues and organs.
The major extracellular cation is:
Highest ion concentration in the ECF.
Excess Na+ in the blood is excreted in the:
Urine (by the kidneys).
Which extracellular cation plays an important role in regulating acid-base balance?
It binds to HCO3-
Which extracellular cation is mainly responsible for maintaining fluid distribution in the body?
Major electrolyte of ECF.
An increased level of Na+ in the ECF is termed:
An increase in Na+ will do what to the osmolarity of the ECF?
Osmolarity is determined by the number of osmotically active particles.
An increase in ECF osmolarity reflects an imbalance between Na+ and _________ concentration.
When the osmolarity of the ECF increases, water will shift to restore isotonicty. Where does the water come from
It's where most of the body's water is contained.
Cells that lose water due to osmotic imbalance appear shrunken, or to use the medical term:
When the plasma is hypernatremic, production of the hormone ____________ is suppressed, resulting in greater renal excretion of Na+.
The hormone is produced by the adrenal cortex.
In a hypernatremia with high osmotic pressure, the hormone ____________ is released to increase water reabsorption from the kidney.
anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
The hormone is released from the pituitary gland.
What conditions lead to dehydration and probable hypernatremia?
Inadequate water intake, Vomitting, diarrhea, nasogastric suctioning, fever, tachypnea, diabetes insipidus.
What is the normal range of Na+ in the ECF?
136-145 mEq/L
What is the body's response to hyponatremia?
Increased aldosterone release and decreased ADH release.
How does the body increase Na+ reabsorption and decrease water reabsorption?
What conditions cause decreased plasma Na+?
Diarrhea, vomiting, prolonged use of diuretics, chronic renal disease, Addison's disease.
Infusion of large amounts of which IV solution can result in hypernatremia?
Na+/Cl- Isotonic normal saline
What is the normal range of serum chloride?
97-108 mEq/L
Which extracellular anion is found in the highest concentration in the ECF?
Which two extracellular ions are important in the regulation of osmotic pressure and water distribution?
Na+ and Cl-
Which two ions are found in the highest contration in the ECF?
What are the routes of chloride excretion in the body?
Urine, feces, and sweat.
In the renal tubules, chloride is excreted in exchange for which extracellular anion?
Chloride and ________ are often exchanged across cell memebranes in order to preserve elctrical neutrality.
Exchanged for another extracellular anion.
When Cl- concentrations change independently of Na+ concentration, the situation is usually an:
acid-base imbalance
Serum Cl- is decreased in which conditions?
Respiratory acidosis, restricted salt intake, vomiting, diarrhea, nasogastric suctioning, excessive use of diuretics, Addison's disease.
What is the normal plasma range for potasium?
3.5-5.3 mEq/L
What is the major intracellular cation?
It's not Na+
Which electrolyte has role in maintaining excitability in both nerve and muscle tissue?
What is the effect on the membrane potential and excitability if the ECF concentration of K+ is raised?
Membrane potential is decreased. Excitability is increased.
Raising the ECF concentration of K+ narrows the gradient between intracellular and extracellular fluid.
How do the kidneys respond to high K+ levels in the ECF?
They decreased absorption and increase excretion of K+
What hormone is released when K+ levels are elevated?
The hormone results in an exchange of Na+ and K+ in the kidneys.
In what conditions are extracellular K+ levels increased?
Renal failure, chronic adrenal insufficiency, severe burns, excess administration of potassium, following strenuous exercise, renal tubular defect, use of aldosterone antagonist diuretics,
What things interfere with K+ excretion?
What conditions cause hypokalemia?
Diarrhea, vomiting, nasogastric suction, anorexia, diuresis, insulin administration, stress response, dietary insufficiency, Cushing's syndrome, primary aldosteronism