Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/88

Click to flip

88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is what part intracellular and what part extracellular?
2/3 intra
1/3 extra
What is extracellular fluid made up of?
80 interstitial and 20 blood plasma
What makes up 90 percent of extracellular cations?
na
What is the function of sodium?
regulate water balance and osmotic forces
What are the constiuent ions and who do they work with?
cl and hco3 work with k and ca
What do cl, hco3,k,and ca do?
maintain neuromuscular irritability to maintain impulses

regulate acid base balance

aid in chemical reactions and cellular transport
Why would adh be secreted?
-because of increase in plasma osmolarity and it holds onto water
Aldosterone is secreted when?
-sodium levels are low
-k levels are up
-renal perfusion is low
Aldosterone conserves what and dumps what?
conserves na and dumps k
When is renin released?
sns stimulation and decreased kidney perfusion
Renin stimulates what
angiotensin
What does angiotensin 2 do?
stimulates release of aldosterone and causes vasoconstriction
When would you find an elevated BNP?
pulmonary hypotension and right ventricular dysfunction and heart failure
What are the 3 roles of NA?
neuromusc irritability, acid base balance and cellular reactions
na cation or anion
na is a cation
what is the primary ecf anion and its purpose?
chloride-electroneutrality
Na range?
135-145
WHAT IS NA REGULATED BY?
KIDNEYS
sODIUM IS WHAT IN RENAL CARDIAC AND LIVER DISEASE?
HIGHER
WHAT DOES HYPONATREMIA DO?
DECREASED MEMBRANE EXCITABILITY

CNS MOST SENSITIVE TO CHANGES IN EXCITABILITY

LESS NA AVAILABLE TO CROSS MEMBRANE
WHAT HAPPENS DURING HYPONATREMIA TO OSMOLARITY?
HYPOOSMOLARITY..PULLS FLUID FROM INSIDE CELLS TO BALANCE
WHAT ARE CNS CHANGES DUE TO HYPONATREMIA?
HEAD ACHE, APPREHENSION, SEIZURES,SWELL OF BRAIN
WHAT ARE CARDIO CHANGES DUE TO HYPONATREMIA?
LOW BLOOD PRESSURE, ORTHOSTATIC, RAPID AND THREADY PULSE,
WHAT ARE SYMPTOMS OF HYPERVOLEMIC HYPONATREMIA?
LUNG CRACKLES, ALTERED LUNG AND CARDIAC FUNCTION
WHAT ARE GI SYMPTOMS OF HYPONATREMIA?
cramping and increased bowel sounds
what should you do for mild hyponatremia?
RESTRICT FLUIDS 1000-1500 ML A DAY
IF NA LESS THAN 125..HOW SHOULD U TREAT IT
.9 NACL OR LACT RINGERS OR 3* NACL IF LESS THAN 115 AND DIURETIC
WHAT HAPPENS IF HYPONATREMIA NOT CORRECTED?
OTHER LYTES GET LOW AND SHOULD RAISE NA SLOWLY
WHAT ARE THE THREE ROLES OF SODIUM?
REGULATE OSMOTIC FORCES
ACID BASE BALANCE AND CELLULAR REACTIONS
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY ECF CATION AND ANION?
CATION-NA
ANION-CHLORIDE
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF CHLORIDE?
PROVIDE ELECTRONEUTRALITY
WHAT IS THE AVERAGE DAILY INTAKE OF NA?
5-6 G OR ONLY 500 MG
WHAT HORMONE REGULATES NA?
ALDOSTERONE
WHY ARE OLDER ADULTS AT RISK FOR HYPONATREMIA?
LESS TBW TO START WITH AN ALTERED THIRST
WHEN IS NA USUALLY HIGHER?
WITH CARDIAC,RENAL,OR LIVER DISEASES
WHAT OCCURS WITH URINARY SYSTEM WHEN THERE IS HYPONATREMIA AND HYPO-OSMOLARITY?
DIEURESIS
WHAT OCCURS AS PATHOLOGIC CHANGES DURING HYPONATREMIA?
-DECREASED MEMBRANE EXCITABILITY, CNS SENSITIVE TO CHANGES IN EXCITABILITY, LESS NA AVAILABLE TO CROSS MEMBRANE
THESE ARE CLINICAL SIGNS OF WHAT? CNS ALTERATION, HEADACHE,CONFUSION,SEIZURES,BRAIN HERNIATION,COMA, DEATH
HYPONATREMIA
WHAT ARE CARDIOVASCULAR CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH? DECREASED BP,ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION, RAPID,THREADY PULSES?
HYPONATREMIA
WHAT ARE CLINICAL SIGNS OF NVD CRAMPING, INCREASED BOWEL SOUNDS,AND SMOOTH MUSCLE DECREASED?
HYPONATREMIA
WHAT IS WHEN ADH IS SECRETED IN ABSENCE OF HYPOVOLEMIA OR HYPEROSMOLALITY?
INAPPROPRIATE ADH SYDROME
WHAT ARE THE MANIFESTATIONS OF SIADH?
WEIGHT GAIN, CEREBRAL EDEMA,MUSCLE TWITCHING,HEADACHES,HEART FAILURE
WHY WOULD HYPOCHLOREMIA RESULT?
HYPONATREMIA OR ELEVATED BICARB, OR EVEN VOMITING OR LOSS OF HCL
WHAT IS WHEN NA LOSS GREATER THAN WATER LOSS?
HYPOVOLEMIC HYPONATREMIA
HOW IS NA LOST IN HYPOVOLEMIC HYPONATREMIA?
DIURETIC USE, DIABETIC GLYCOSURIA, ALDOSTERONE DEFICIENCY AND VOMIT, DIAHRREA, SWEAT, BURNS, HI VOL ILEOSTOMIES
WHAT TYPE OF NATREMIA IS WHEN TBW IS SLIGHTLY INCREASED AND THE NA NORMAL? WHAT SYNDROME IS THIS RELATED TO?
EUVOLEMIC HYPONATREMIA-SIADH
WHAT CAUSES EUVOLEMIC HYPONATREMIA?
INCREASE IN ADH, CANCER,CNS DISORDERS
WHAT NATREMIA IS WHEN THE TBW INCREASE IS GREATER THAN THE NA?
HYPERVOLEMIC HYPONATREMIA
WHAT ARE THE TWO PROBLEMS THAT CAUSE HYPERNATREMIA?
EXCESSIVE WATER LOSS AND INSUFFICIENT REPLACEMENT
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF HYPERNATREMIA?
POLYURIA,FEVER,VOMIT,DIARRHEA,DRAINAGE,TUBE FEEDINGS,PROLONGED HYPERVENTILATION
WHAT DISORDERS CAUSE NA RETENTION?
CUSHING'S,STEROID THERAPY,HYPERALDOSTERONISM,HEART LIVER AND RENAL DISEASE
WHAT IS THE WATER MOVEMENT IN HYPERNATREMIA?
ICF TO ECF AND CAN LEAD TO CELLULAR DEHYDRATION
WHAT ORGAN IS EXTRA SENSITIVE TO HYPERNATREMIA?
THE HEART--CALCIUM MUST MOVE THROUGH CA CHANNELS FOR CARDIAC MUSCLE CONTRACTION AND NA COMPETES, DECREASING MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTIBILITY
HOW DOES THE BODY RESPOND TO HYPERNATREMIA?
SUPPRESS ADH AND ALDOSTERONE,AND INCREASES RENAL EXCRETION
IF YOU ARE HYPERNATREMIC AND HAVE INCREASED URINE OUTPUT HOW ARE U VOLEMICLY?
HYPERVOLEMIC
IF YOU HAVE OLIGURIA WITH HYPERNATREMIA..HOW R U VOLEMICALLY?
HYPOVOLEMIC
WHAT MANIFESTATIONS OCCUR DURING HYPERNATREMIA?
CELLS SHRINK, DRY MEMBRANES, COMA, AGITATION, FEVER, ELEVATED CHLORIDE
WHAT KIND OF SOLUTIONS SHOULD YOU USE TO CORRECT HYPERNATREMIA?
.225 OR .45% NACL OR D5W HYPOTONIC STUFF!
what kind of ion is k and where does it lie?
cation and intracellular
what is k concentration maintained by?
na-k pump
what are the 3 things k is essential for?
transmission and conduction of nerve impulses, normal cardiac rhythms,skeletal and smooth muscle contractions
changes in what affect k balance?
ph
low k causes what kind of manifestations?
decrease in neuromusc excitability, muscle weak, smooth muscle atony, dysrhythmias,constipation,ventfib or cardiac arrest
what can most reliably detect hypokalemia within cell?
ecg
what are the causes of high hyperkalemia?
retent of body,decreased renal excretion, trauma, burns, acidosis, tls, insulin deficiency
what are some disorders where k is released from cells?
hodgkins,leukemia,diuretics,
what are some manifestations of hyperkalemia?
neuro weakness, respiratory paralysis,
what are other lab studies used to determine hyperkalemia?
bun,creatnine,co2 levels
in mild hyperkalemia what occurs?
hypopolarization so irritability, tingling, restlessness, cramping, diarhhea
what occurs during severe hyperkalemia
cannot repolarize so results in weakness, loss of muscle tone, and flaccid paralysis
what are calcium and phosphate regulated by?
vitamin d, parathyroid hormone, and calictionin
what is function of pth?
increases ca plasma levels
what is function of vitamind d?
increases calcium absorption
what is the function of calcitonin?
decreases plasma calcium levels
where is most phosphate located?
in the bone
why is phosphate necessary?
for high energy bonds in creatinine phosphate and atop and as a buffer
calcium and phosphate have what kind or relationship?
inverse
what is when a decrease in block of na into cell, increased neuromuscular excitability, and muscle cramps occcurs?
hypocalcemia
what increases the block of na into the cell, decreases neuromusc excitability,muscle weakness,increased bone fractures,kidney stones, and constipation?
hypercalcemia
what are manifestation of hypophospatemia?
osteomalacia,muscle weakness,bleeding disorders,anemia,leukocyte alterations,
hi phosphate levels are related to what?
low calcium levels
Magnesium does what?
protein and nucleic acid synthesis reactions cofactor
bmp includes what?
calcium,glucose,na,potassium,co2,chloride,
what are kidney tests?
bun and creatinine
what is the nitrogenous end product of metabolism that is derived from protein and tissue turnover?
urea
what is the product of muscle protein catabolism?
creatinie
what is not effected by diet and exercise but will only change if kidneys are not functioning properly?
creatnine
what occurs with creatnine when kidneys not functioning steadily?
amount in urine decreases and blood levels increase