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96 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia
Name this condition
Atrial Flutter
Name this condition
Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia
Name this condition
Premature ventricular
Name this condition
Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia
Name this condition
Ventricular Tachycardia
Name this condition
Ventricular Fibrillation
Name this condition
Torsades de pointes
Name this condition
Accelerated Idioventriculare Rhythm
Name this condition
First Degree AV Block
Name this condition
Morbitz Type II
Name this condition
Third Degree AV Block
Name this condition
Right Bundle Branch Block
Name this condition
Left Bundle Branch Block
Name this condition
Left Anterior Hemiblock
Name this condition
Left Posterior Hemiblock
Name this condition
Wolf-Parkinson-White Syndrome
Name this condition
Lown-Ganong-Levine Syndrome
Name this condition
What does the PR interval measure
Start of atrial depolarization to the start of ventricular depolarization
What does the ST segment record
The time from the end of ventricular deploarization to the beginning of ventricular repolarization
What does the QT interval measure
The time from the start of ventricular deplarization to the end of ventricular repolarization
What leads make up the "anterior leads"
V1-V2-V3-V4
What leads make up the "lateral leads"
I, AVL, V5, V6
What leads make up the "inferior leads"
II, III, AVF
What is the duration and amplitude of the P wave
Duration: <.12 seconds, Amplitude: 2.5mm or less
Where is the P wave normally biphasic
Lead III and V1
What is the duration of the PR interval
.12 to .2 seconds
What is the normal duration of the QT interval
.44-.86 seconds. (40% of normal cardiac cycle from 1 R wave to the next)
What is the normal duration of the QRS complex
.06 to .12 seconds
What does the term "R-wave progression" mean
The R wave get progressivel larger as you proceed across the precordial leads from V1 to V5
Deep S waves are normally seen in what precordial leads
Leads V1 and V2
What leads do you look at to identify the axis
Leads I and AVF
The QRS complexes of Lead I and AVF would appear how in left axis deviation
Lead I - Positive and Lead AVF - Negative
The QRS complexes of Lead I and AVF would appear how in right axis deviation
Lead I - Negative and Lead AVF-Positive
What leads do you look at to diagnose atrial enlargement
Leads II and V1
How is right atrial enlargement characterized
P wave larger than normal in lead II and large upright first portion of biphasic P wave in lead V1 (often caused by lung disease)
How is left atrial enlargement characterized
Widdened P wave in lead II with the second portion being at least one small block wide and the biphasic P wave of lead V1 showing the second portion of the P wave dipping below the baseline by at least one small block.
How is right ventricular hypertrophy recognized
Right axis deviation and the R wave is larger than the S wave in V1, whereas the S wave is larger than the R wave in V6
How do you recognize left ventricular hypertrophy
The R wave in V5 or V6 plus the S wave in V1 or V2 exceeds 35 mm and the R wave in AVL exceeds 13 mm.
What is normal sinus rhythm rate
60-100
What rate do junctional pacemakers typically discharge at
40-60
What rate do ventricular pacemeaker cells discharge at
30-45
What rate do atrial pacemakers normally discharge at
60-75
What non-disease related conditions may cause PSVT
Alcohol, coffee or sheer excitement
What can you manually do to slow or terminate PSVT
Carotid massage
True or False. Carotid massage increases block in A-flutter
TRUE
How can you distinguish a wandering atrial pacemaker from MAT
MAT has varying P wave shapes and a rate of 100-200 whereas a wandering atrial pacemaker has one P wave shape and a rate less than 100
How can MAT be distinguished from A-fib
MAT has easily identifiable P waves occurring before each QRS complex
When should you worry about PVCs
Frequent PVCs, a run of 3 or more PVCs, Multiform PVCs, PVCs falling on T waves
A run of 3 or more PVCs is called what
Ventricular tachycardia
A PVC falling on an elongated T wave can produce what
Torsades de pointes
Define bigeminy and trigeminy
Bigminy - ratio of one normal sinus beat to one PVC. Trigeminy-two normal sinus beats for every one PVC
What is sick sinus syndrome
Demonstrated by alternating periods of supraventricular tachycardia and bradycardia. Often there is a long pause after the SVT of greater than 4 seconds.
How is first-degree AV block identified
PR interval is longer than .2 seconds
How do you identify Mobitz Type I (Wenckebach)
PR intervals get progressively longer until a QRS is dropped
How do you identify Mobitz Type II
The PR interval does not progressively lengthen but a QRS is suddenly dropped then the pattern repeats
How do you recognize third degree AV block
AV dissociation occurs with the P waves occurring at regular intervals and the QRS waves occurring at regular intervals
What are the criteria for right bundle branch block
Wide QRS complex, Rabit ears in V1 and V2 with ST segment depression and T wave inversion, reciprocal changes in V5, V6, I and AVL
What are the criteria for left bundle branch block
Wide QRS complex, Broad or notched R wave in V5, V6, I and AVL with ST segment depression and T wave inversion
What axis deviation results from a left anterior hemiblock
Left axis deviation
What axis deviation results from a left posterior hemiblock
Right axis deviation
What are the criteria for WPW syndrome
PR interval less than .12 seconds, Wide QRS, Delta waves
What are the criteria for Lown-Ganong-Levine Syndrome (LGL)
PR interval less than .12 seconds, QRS normal, no delta wave
During an acute MI what 3 stages does an ECG evolve
T wave peaking followed by T wave inversion, ST segment elevation, Appearance of Q waves
How do the inverted T waves of an MI differ from ventricular hypertrophy
In an MI the the inverted T wave is symmetric whereas in ventricular hypertrophy it has a gentle downslope and rapid upslope
What does ST segment elevation represent
Injury
What does the appearance of Q waves indicate
Cell death has occurred and is diagnostic of MI
What characteristics confirm a pathologic Q wave
A duration greater than .04 seconds, the depth of the Q wave must be at least one third the height of the R wave
What might poor R wave progression indicate
Anterior infarction
What area of infarction develops with right coronary artery occlusion
Inferior infarction
Lateral wall infarction results from occlusion of what artery
Left Circumflex artery
Anterior infarctions are seen in what leads
Precordial leads
Tall R waves with ST segment depression in lead V1 indicate what
Posterior infarction
How do you distinguish rt. ventricular hypertrophy from a posterior infarction
Rt. ventricular hypertrophy has a large R wave in V1 like a posterior infarct but it also has rt. axis deviation.
What are the EKG signs for Angina
ST segment depression or T wave inversion
ST segment elevation may be seen in what two cardiac disease states
Transmural infarction or Prinzmetal's angina
ST segment depression may be seen in what two cardiac disease states
Angina or non-Q wave infarction
Peaked T waves througout all leads means what
Hyperkalemia
How does low calcium levels effect the QT interval
Prolongs it
How does high calcium levels effect the QT interval
Shortens it
How does digitalis effect the EKG
ST segment depression with flattening or inversion of T wave most prominent in leads with tall R waves
How does pericardial effusion effect the EKG reading
Low voltage in all leads
What is electrical alternans
The effusion allows the heart to rotate freely in the sac varying the electrical activity with each beat.
What are the EKG signs of pericarditis
ST segment elevation and T wave flattening or inversion often seen in far more leads that a localized infarction
What type of blocks are seen with myocarditis
Bundle branch blocks and hemiblocks
What are the EKG signs for an Acute Pulmonary Embolism
A large S wave in lead I, a deep Q wave in lead III and an inverted T wave in lead III (S1Q3T3)
Anterior infarctions result from blockage of what artery
Left anterior descending artery
Posterior infarctions result from what artery blockage
Rt. coronary artery or left circumflex artery
S1 heart sounds represent what and where do they fall on the EKG
Closure of the tricuspid and mitral valves during systole and correspond with the QRS
S2 heart sounds represent what and where do they fall on the EKG
Closure of the aortic and pulmonic semilunar valves and fall on the T wave
Where does the S3 heart sound occur
Sometime after S2
Where does the S4 heart sound occur and what does it represent
Falls on the P wave and represents atrial kick forcing blood into a stiffened ventricle
Atrial Fibrillation
Name this condition
Wenckebach
Name this condition
Ischemia
Name this condition
Myocardial Infarction
Name this condition