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16 Cards in this Set

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EKG III
EKG III
Define Noncompensatory pause:
pause following premature beat (if the following beat is normal & occurs before it was expected) (the space before/after premature beat is less than the sum of 2 R-R intervals.
Define Supraventricular:
originating from a location above the ventricles.
Define “Run” of ventricular tachycardia:
three or more PVC’s in a row—occurs in bursts of 6-10 (probably what they mean by a “run”) or can be sustained. May occur with or without pulses.
Define Polymorphic Ventricular tachycardia:
appearance of waveform varies considerably from complex to complex. One variant is Torsades de pointes
Differentiate the characteristics and causes associated with the following rhythms: Normal sinus:
normal electrical activity of the heart. HR 60-100, regular rhythm w/normal P wave preceding each normal QRS complex. PR intervals within .12-.20 sec & constant, QRS followed by normal T wave
characteristics and causes associated with the following rhythms: Sinus Bradycardia:
slower than normal rhythm that originates from SA node. Has all characteristics of normal sinus rhythm (NSR) but HR less than 60. Occurs normally (sleep, conditioned athletes) or as a result of anterior wall MI involving RCA, drugs, too much parasympathetic, too little sympathetic stimulation
characteristics and causes associated with the following rhythms: Sinus tachycardia:
faster than normal rhythm resulting from increase in rate of sinus node discharge. Same characteristics as NSR but with a faster rate. May be physiologic or may be due to drugs (caffeine, nicotine), disease (fever, hypovolemia, resp distress, anemia, etc).
characteristics and causes associated with the following rhythms: Sinus dysrhythmia:
patterned irregularity (repeating cycle of slowing down & speeding up again) in a rhythm that otherwise has the same characteristics as NSR. Coincides w/respiratory cycle & changes in intrathoracic pressure. Occurs naturally in athletes, children & older adults but may be seen in heart disease or inferior wall MI and with certain drugs (digitalis, morphine). may be associated with palpitations, dizziness and syncope
characteristics and causes associated with the following rhythms: Sinus arrest:
when SA node transiently stops firing, from marked depression in SA node automaticity. Short periods of cardiac stand still until lower-level pacemaker discharges or SA node resumes fxn. Looks like NSR except for pause in rhythm. Causes include increased parasympathetic tone, hypoxia, ischemia, excessive digitalis or Inderal, hyperkalemia, damage to SA node (AMI)
Distinguish among the characteristics of the following Atrial Dysrhythmias: Wandering Atrial pacemaker:
rhythm in which the pacemaker site shifts between the SA node, atria, and/or AV junction—P waves change in appearance (must be three different appearing P waves to call it this)
Distinguish among the characteristics of the following Atrial Dysrhythmias: Atrial tachycardia:
rapid dysrhythmia (rate 150-250) that arises from the atria—so fast it overrides the SA node. May occur in short bursts or be sustained. There is one P wave for every QRS but may be buried in the preceding T wave. P wave may be flattened or notched. PR interval shortened or normal. PR interval undeterminable usually. Normal QRS
Distinguish among the characteristics of the following Atrial Dysrhythmias: Premature atrial complexes:
early ectopic beats that originate outside the SA node. P wave will appear early (in the PAC) then the underlying rhythm will resume
Distinguish among the characteristics of the following Atrial Dysrhythmias: Supraventricular tachycardia:
very fast rhythm with narrow QRS complexes (difficult to distinguish whether it arises from atria or AV junction). P waves buried in preceding T. Includes PSVT, non-paroxysmal atrial tach, multifocal atrial tach and junctional tach
Distinguish among the characteristics of the following Atrial Dysrhythmias: Atrial fibrillation:
occurs when there is chaotic, asynchronous firing of multiple areas within the atria, completely suppressing normal SA node output and causing the atria to quiver rather than contract. Stems from rapid firing of ectopic impulses (over 350/min) in reentry pathways. Impulses conducted to ventricles in irregular/sporadic fashion. Characterized by grossly (irregularly) irregular rhythm. No discernable P waves; baseline of fibrillatory waves represents atrial activity
Distinguish among the characteristics of the following Atrial Dysrhythmias: Atrial flutter:
rapid depolarization of a single focus in the atria at rate of 250-350, resulting from circus reentry (impulse from SA node circles back through the intranodal pathways and restimulates the AV node over and over). The waves blend together in a saw-toothed pattern. Ventricular rates vary. Atrial rhythm regular, ventricular may be regular or irregular