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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the SA node rate?
60-100
which way does heart muscle depolarize/repolarize?
depolarize: inside -> out
repolarize: outside -> in
where is the (+) for limb lead I?
L-hand
where is the (+) lead for lead AVF?
L-foot
what leads are the inferior leads?
leads II, III and aVF
what leads are the L-sided leads?
leads I, II and aVL
what leads are the R-sided precordial leads?
V1 and V2
how big should the R-wave be?
3mm by V3
where should R = S wave?
R=S at V4
what causes the q-wave in lead I?
the L->R depolarization of the interventricular septum
what is normal P-R interval
0.12 to 0.20
if P-R interval is short (<0.12), what are you worried about?
WPW
if P-R interval is long (>0.20), what are you worried about?
heart block
what is normal QRS interval?
2-3 boxes (0.08-0.12)
when does the QRS become wide?
hyperkalemia
ventricular beat
block (below His-bundle)
what is the definition of ST elevation?
(# of boxes)
2 boxes/mm
what occurs during the ST interval
repolarization
what is a normal QT interval
0.30-0.40
(>0.44 is bad)
what are you at risk for with a QT interval (>0.40)?
torsades de pointes
(order a Mg level)
how much time does a big box represent?
0.20 sec
how much time does a little box represent?
0.04 sec
how many boxes in 1 sec
5 big boxes
(25 littles)
what does limb lead reversal look like compared to dextracardia?
R wave progression (increase) on precordial leads (v1-v6)
what happens when you have limb-lead reversal or dextracardia on ECG?
inverted p-wave in lead I

[aVR and aVL will have opposite facing T-waves?]
what does WPW look like on ECG?
slurred R-waves on precordial leads
(delta-waves)
if conduction is slowed in the AV node, what aspect of the ECG will be effected?
PR segment
PR interval
what are the 8 steps to reading an ECG?
rate
rhythm
axis
intervals
hypertrophy
q-waves
ST-T wave changes
miscellaneous
what lead do we look for atrial enlargement in?
lead II
(enlargement >2.5 boxes)

lead I
(enlargement >1.5)
what does a normal size left atria look like on ECG?
"2x2 boxes in lead II"
if someone has recent RA enlargement with
D-dimer looking for a PE
(only if they're ambulatory)
what and what lead do you look for LA enlargment?
P-wave in:
lead II (>3 boxes or "notched")
V1 (1x1 biphasic boxes)
what does normal axis deviation look like on ECG?
up in lead I
up in aVF
what does left axis deviation (counter-clockwise) look like on ECG?
up in lead I
down in aVF
what does right axis deviation (clockwise) look like on ECG?
down in lead I
up in aVF
what does right superior axis deviation (NW) look like on ECG?
down in lead I
down in aVF
what are the (2) causes right superior axis deviation (NW)?
situs inversus (dextracardia)
v-tach
what is the tiebreaker in left-axis deviation vs normal axis?
lead II
what is normal axis (in degrees)?
-30 to +90
what does RVH look like?
in leads V1 and V2:
R>S
- (R>7)
- (S<2)
strain?
asymmetric t-wave inversion
what causes RVH?
pulmonary HTN (COPD, PE, etc)
pulmonary stenosis
ventricular septal defect
what is an expected physical exam finding in a child with heart failure?
hepatomegaly
what are the (2) equations for finding LVH on ECG?
S-wave (v1/2) + R-wave (v5/6) = >35

or

aVL w/ R-wave >11