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18 Cards in this Set

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Non-Euclidean Geometry
non-euclidean spacetime geometry is necessary to understand general relativity-- objects travel in straight lines, but those straight lines are in a curved spacetime.
Ether
-Discounted in 1905 Speech
-Special Relativity replaced the Lorentz ether theory, which said that an object moving through ether gets contracted in its direction of motion by a special ratio -Instead, Einstein argued that all observers could claim light speed as fixed in their frame
Arthur Eddington
-organized expedition to confirm theory of relativity by photographing starlight(Einstein predicted a light ray's path would bend when traveling in a gravitational field, but would still take shortest path. Measured by comparing pic of star near sun and far away)
-Quaker pacifist, believed international science above all politics
-believed science and religion could coexist
Marietta Blau
-Jewish Austrian physicist who developed photographic method of particle identification (used to investigate nuclear emulsions using a photographic plate to catch charged entities within particles, like protons and neutrons)
-left Austria during WWII, but was able to work in Mexico after Einstein's recommendation
Vladimir Fock
-Soviet Physicist who rejected general relativity because he felt it was based on absolute standards
-created a theory of relativity that appealed to Soviets
Lise Meitner
-worked with Otto Hahn on alpha/beta emissions, discovered nuclear fission
-Hahn won Nobel Prise
-Meitner forced to flee from Austria (she was a non-practicing Jew)
Otto Hahn
-worked with Meitner on fission, discovered "liquid-drop" fission
-he won Nobel prize in 1944
Logical Positivism
-philosophy based in rationalism and empiricism (methodology and precision of math)
-created by the Vienna Circle, led by Moritz Schlick, phil professor at Univ. Vienna
-emphasis on the knowable, especially that which can be grasped through the senses, was key to positivism
Vienna Circle
-group of philosophers following Moritz Schlick
-2 main beliefs: experience is ht only source of knowledge; logical analysis performed with the help of symbolic logic is the preferred method for solving problems
-Goal: unified science, link the achievements of individual investigators in various fields of science and to create a neutral symbolic language to communicate these ideas
Bauhaus
-linked to vienna circle and logical positivists; use scientific principles to create an anti-aesthetic aesthetic valuing functionality
-German school of art and architecture eventually closed by Nazi's in 1933 (Kandinsky, Klee both taught there)
Conventionalism
-Poincare's theory based on 3 notions:
1. non-euclidian geometries have the same logical and mathematical legitimacy as Euclidian geometry
2. All geometric systems are equivalent and thus no system of axioms may claim that it is the true geometry
3. Axioms of geometry are neither synthetic a priori judgments nor analytic ones; they are conventions or 'disguised' definitions
GEOMETRIES DIFFER IN LANGUAGE, BUT THEY ARE CONCERNED WITH THE SAME REALITY
read notes
Friedrich Adler
-Son of Austro-Hungarian Sociality Part Head, Victor Adler
-friends with Einstein, bonded over Ernst Mach
-committed political assignation, questionable sanity, though Einstein thought he was sane
Michele Besso
-met Einstein at Federal Polytechnic Institute in Zurich, introduced him to works of Ernst Mach and Vienna Circle
-credited in 1905 paper as best sounding board for scientific ideas
Rudolf Carnap
-Vienna Circle member, wrote Aufbau to build a unified structure of science built upon the application of strict logic to basic experiential information
4 theses:
-there are no things outside of the experiential
-there are no forces over and beyond relative motions
-there is no psychology of the other that is not grounded in an individual's own experience
-there are no social objects such as the state or the volk (???)
Hermann Minkowski
-German mathematician who introduced the spacetime conception of special relativity
-four dimensional spacetime meant two events could happen in one frame of reference or at the same point in two different times
-introduced a new formula for distance using c (the speed of light)
ecole polytechnique
-French University where Poincare studied, prepared students for military, engineering
-emphasized abstract concepts
-Galison says studying here lead him towards conventionalism
Eidgenoessishce Technische Hochschule
-ETH, Swiss Federal Technical University where Einstein graduated in 1905
-trained abstract math and practical engineering students together
-Einstein was bored, wanted to study Maxwell electromagnetism
Ernst Mach
-Austrian physicist
-create mach number which is ratio of speed of projectile object to speed of sound