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130 Cards in this Set

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enviornment
the circumstances and conditions that surround an organism
enviornmental science
the systematic study of our enviornment and our place on it
science
a process for producing empirical knowledge about the natural world through methodical and logical studies of nature
deductive reasoning
logical reasoning from general to specific
inductive reasoning
drawing conclusions from many small observations to make one big observation
Name the steps to the scientific method
observe, hypothesis, develop a test, gather data, interpret
natural experiment
one that observes the events that have happened
scientific consensus
an agreement among scientists
paradigm shifts
ever changing models of the world that shift our view of it
sound science
data and conclusions that support their own agenda
What is the difference between enviormentalists and enviornmental scientists?
enviormentalists try to help the enviornment and enviormental scientists try to increase knowledge but don't benefit our way of standard living
analytical thinking
breaking ideas down to assess them
Creative thinking
discovering new approaches to a problem
Logical thinking
uses deductive reasoning to understand a problem
Reflective thinking
understanding the process
critical thinking
planning out how to solve a problem
Name the steps of critical thinking
ID the premises and conclusions in an argument,
awknowledge and clarify uncertinties,
distinguish between facts and values,
recognize and assess assumptions,
distinguish reliability,
recognize and understand conceptual frameworks
George Perkins Marsh
wrote the book Man and Nature that influenced Teddy Roosevelt to manage the forest more effeciently
Utilitarian Conservation
brought by Roosevelt; we should save the forests because they are useful to us bringing happiness to the most amount of people
biocentric conservation
Muir brought about saying that we should save the forests for their own sake
Leopold
a farmer who planted thousands of trees for the sake of beauty, stating that we should reguard nature as apart of our community
modern enviornmentalism
created by rachael carlson, understanding the threats of pollution and toxic chemicals
global enviornmentalism
being concerned with the entire globe as a whole
Maathai
she founded the green belt movement in Kenya to plant more trees
Name the problems that the UN found in their assessment of the world
not enough water for the population,
future food supply,
fossil fuels running out and polluting,
global warming
How can we improve the decreasing numbers of marine life?
Apo Islands are already starting to have marine reserves
How has population growth changed from a century ago?
the birth rate has changed from 6.1 per woman to 2.1
How has disease and water supplies changed?
vaccinations are found and clean water supplies have reached more numbers
How has energy been used differently?
Europe and Brittian have made progress on finding renewable sources
Name some rich countries
North America, Western Europe, Japan, singapore, australia, new zealand, and United Arab Emirates
What is the average capita per year in rich countries?
25,000
What is the average capita per year in poor countries?
625
Name the coutries that have the most poverty
china, india, sub-saharan africa
Sustainability
search for ecological stability and human progress that can last over a long term
sustainable development
meeting the needs of the present without comprimising the needs of the future
indigenous people
people who are decendants of the original inhaitants
ecology
the scientific study of relationships between organisms and their enviornment
potential energy
stored energy that is latent but available for use
kinetic energy
the energy contained in moving objects
Low Quality Energy
diffused, dispersed, or low in temp; difficult to gather
Name an example of Low Quality energy
heat stored in the ocean
High Quality Energy
intensly concentrated or high in temp; useful in carrying out work
Name an example of High Quality Energy
high voltage electrical energy
Which quality of energy are most useful to us?
high quality energy
What happens with time as energy is reused?
it is constantly degraded
What form of energy does it begin in, in the ecosystem?
solar energy
What is the first law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed
What is the second law of thermodynamics
Energy deteriorates with use even though the amount stays the same; entropy
entropy
the tendency of all natural systems to move towards a state of increasing disorder
Name the 16 essential elements
H, Mg, B, C, N, O, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo
Acids
compound that readily release H in water
Bases
substances that readily take up H and release OH
What is the pH of blood plasma?
7.4
What pH level causes death for humans?
6.8
What is percent of cell mass is water?
60% - 90%
dipole
an uneven distribution of charge within the water bond (because O is more electronegative)
photosynthesis
captures radiant energy and turns it into useful energy that the bonds can hold together
chemosynthesis
the process in which inorganic chemicals serve as an energy source for synthesis of organic molecules
What happens to 99.9% of the sun's energy?
its reflected into space, absorbed as heat, or evaporated as water
What happens to the other .1% of the sun's energy?
its used by plants for photosynthesis to create simple sugars from Carbondioxide and water with the release of oxygen
How much energy is lost with the each transfer?
90%
Name the types of organisms that are identified by what they eat (trophic level)
Producers, Primary Consumers, Secondary Consumers, Tertiary Consumers
biogeochemical cycling
a process of recycling nutrients
Where does CO2 come from?
respiration, combustion of fossil fuels, and decompostion of organic matter
Name the physical states of carbon
gas, liquid, solid, chem forms of organic and inorganic
Where are the highest levels of carbon found?
in the ocean
What do plants convert inorganic Carbon into?
carbs by photosynthesis, the plants decompose and eventually become fossile fuels
detritivores
ants beetles ect that consume litter
What must nitrogen be converted to for plants to use their N?
nitrates, nitrites, ammonia
How is nitrogen converted for plants to use?
by nitrogen fixing bacteria, organobacteria, lightning, erosion of rocks
Phosphorus Cycle
P in rocks travel by water to plants, where they are then used by plants
How is sulfur transported in the sulfur cycle
weathering, errotion, sea floor vents, volcanic erruption
What does sulfur do to the enviornment?
it contributes to the acidity of rain, water and soil
Environmental Factor
temp and nutrient supply that has max and min levels beyond which a species cannot survive
What did Liebig propose?
that single environmental factors in shortest supply are critical in species distribution
What did Shelford propose?
that single enviornmental factors closest to tolerance limits determines where a particular organism can live
What are useful indicators of specific enviornmental characteristics?
requirements and tolerances of species
selection pressures
changes in an individual organism due to non permanent physiological modifications
evolutions
gradual changes in a species due to changes in genetic material and competition
Theory of Evolution
developed by charles darwin and alfred wallace
Natural Selection
genetic combinations best adapted for present environmental conditions tend to become abundant
Name the ways natural selection occurs
spontaneous random mutations or selective pressure
selective pressure
physiological stress, predation, competition, luck
speciation
the development of a new species
Habitat
the place or set of environmental conditions in which a particular organism lives
Ecological Niche
the role played by a species in a biological community
Law of Competition Exclution
states that no two species can occupy the same ecological space at the same time
symbiosis
two or more species live together
Commensalism
one member benefits while the other is neither benefited nor harmed
Mutualism
organisms that combine and mutually benefit from the relationship
Parasitism
a form of predation where one species benefits and the other is harmed
Key Stone Species
species that play essential community roles
Name some examples of Key stone species
top preditors, tropical figs (bec they are all year round feeding many animals) ect
exponential growth
the unrestricted increase in a population
Density Dependent
the number of people in a population determines the out come of side effects
Density Independent
resistance to population that has a mortality rate because of natural disaster
Intrinsic
resistance to population growth because of a species
Extrinsic
resistance to a population growth because of external occurances
primary productivity
a community's rate of biomass production, or the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy
Net Primary productivity
primary productivity minus the energy lost in respiration
What does productivity depend upon?
light levels, temperature, moisture, nutrient availability
abundance
the number of individuals of a species in an area
diversity
the number of different species in an area
complexity
the number of species at each trophic level in a community
stability
a dynamic equilibrium among the physical and biological factors in an ecosystem or a community
Constancy
lack of fluctuations in composition or function
Inertia
resistance to perturbations
renewal
ability to repair damage after disturbance
Name the reasons why members of a community are placed in any given space
random (bec of resource), ordered (biological competition), clustered (for protection)
Ecotones
the boundries between adjacent habitats (diverse population)
Edge Effects
the environmental and biotic conditions at the edge of a habitat (temp, moisture levels, predator species)
Core Habitat
the interior area of a habitat
Ecological Succession
the process by which organisms occupy a site and gradually change environmental conditions by creating soil, shelter, shade, ect
Primary Succession
land is bare, and organisms live where no organism has lived before
Secondary Succession
occurs when an existing community is distruped and a new one subsequently develops at the site
Exotic Species
communities are altered, humans usually bring them in, sucessful ones are goats, cats, pigs
population
the breeding group for an organism
Total Fertility Rate
the number of children a woman in a given population is likely to bear during her reproductive
The biotic potential of species differs markedly and is influenced by:
1. the frequency of reproduction 2. the total number of times the organism reproduces 3. the number of offspring from each reproductive cycle 4. the age at which reproduction starts
fecundity
physical ability to reproduce
fertility
the actual production of offspring
Crude Birth Rate
number of births per year per 1000 people
Zero Population Growth
occurs when births + immigration just equal deaths + emigration
dependency ratio
the number of nonworking individuals - declining in countries such as the US and Japan
age sex distribution
the probability of dying or giving birth within any given year depends upon the age and sex of the population members
Pronatalist Pressures
factors that increase people s desires to have children
Birth Reduction Pressures
factors that tend to reduce fertility
Optimistic View
world population will stabilize during this century
Pessimistic View
poorer countries of the world are caught in a demographic trap
Social Justice View
overpopulation due to a lack of justice not resources