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159 Cards in this Set

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The double lion god, guardian of the sunrise and sunset. Guardian of the peaks that supported the sky.
Egyptian chthonic underworld god
"The Hidden One." An Egyptian sky god who evolved into a sun god and the head of the Egyptian pantheon. Originally a local god of Khmun and then of Thebes. Amun's cult rose in prominence as Thebes rose in status. In the New Kingdom he became combined with the Heliopolitan sun god Ra as Amun-Ra, in which form he was the "king of the gods" and the tutelary deity of the Pharaohs. The Pharaohs, who had been considered "sons of Ra", thus came to be regarded as incarnations of Amun-Ra. Amun took on the role of a primeval deity and creator in the cosmology of the New Kingdom, creating earth and sky out of his thought. By Dynasty XVIII Amun was the "King of the Gods." Karnak was his most famous temple. The temple is the largest religious structure ever built by man. Amun sometimes appears as a protector of any devotee in need.
Amun-Re ( Amon-Ra )
A combination of Amun and Ra worshipped in later Egyptian history. Under this name, the Theban god Amun became the national god of Egypt. Pharaohs considered themselves to be sons of Amun-Ra. Displaced during Akhenaten's rule, he was restored to full power afterwards.
Andjety ( Anezti, Anedjti )
Egyptian underworld god. Andjety was responsible for the rebirth of the individual in the afterlife. He wore a high conical crown surmounted by two feather plumes, and bore the crook and flail. Andjety was associated with Osiris, whose symbols were also the crook and flail, as well as the atef crown, which resembled that worn by Andjety. His worship originated in the ninth Nome of Lower Egypt. Both Osiris and him had their main cult center at Busiris.
Anezti ( Anedjti )
A god of the ninth Nome of Lower Egypt.
Anhur ( Anhert, Anhuret, Greek Onuris )
Egyptian warrior and hunter god. His consort was the lion goddess Mekhit. He was depicted as a bearded warrior wearing a long robe and a headdress with four tall plumes, often bearing a spear. Mekhit is often shown accompanying him. Anhur was the champion of Egypt who hunted and slew the enemies of Ra. Occasionally equated with the god Shu and with Ares by the Ptolemaic Greeks. Anhur was the Divine Huntsman. His cult originated in the Upper Egyptian city of Thinis (This), near Abydos, but his main cult center was at Sebennytos in the Nile Delta.
An Egyptian guardian deity. Depicted as a falcon or with a falcon's head, often standing on a crescent-shaped boat.
Anubis (Greek; Egyptian: Anup)
An Egyptian god of the dead. Also known as Khenty-Imentiu - "Chief of the Westerners" - a reference to the belief that the realm of the dead lay to the west and a association with the setting sun and the Egyptian custom of building cemeteries on the west bank of the Nile. He was represented as a black jackal/dog or as a man with the head of a jackal/dog. His father was normally given as Ra, while is mother was sometimes Nephthys or Isis.
A Nubian Lion god.
Apis ( Greek form; Egyptian Hapi, Hape)
Egyptian bull god of Memphis. Originally a form the god Hapi, he was later regarded as the living embodiment of the god Ptah. Apis was supposedly conceived after a flash of lightning struck Isis. When he, the Apis Bull, died it was said that he became/entered the god Osiris. Based on distinguishing marks, a black and white bull was selected to represent Apis. It must be all black save for a white triangular patch on the forehead. Omens were derived by it's behavior. After a Apis bull died, it was mummified and buried with much ceremony at Sakkarah in an underground tomb known to the Greeks as the Serapeum, afterwards, his priests searched for a calf with the appropriate markings which indicated that it was his successor. The Pharaohs were closely associated with the Apis bull. They partook of it's strength and fertility in life and aided in their ascent to the sun god after death. The Apis bull was depicted with the solar disk between its horns and also bearing the uraeus (cobra amulet) on its head.
Apophis ( Apepi, Apep )
Egyptian snake god and personified darkness, evil and the forces of chaos. Apophis was the eternal enemy of Ra and cosmic order. Each night he did battle with Ra on his journey through the underworld on the barque of the sun, and each night Ra triumphed to be reborn at dawn in the east. Often the god Set or the serpent Mehen was the one who defended Ra and the solar barque from Apophis. During an eclipse it was said that Apophis had gained a temporary victory however, Ra always triumphed in the end. In one account, it was said that Ra gained a permanent victory over Apophis when he cut up and burned Apophis' body.
Name of the god who gained its prominence during the reign of Akhenaten. Akhenaten abolished the traditional cults of Egypt in favor of the Aten. A sun with multiple arms holding/offering Ankh, was the Aten's representation. This was the first monotheistic cult in the world.
The primeval sun god and creator of the world. He represents the setting sun. Later he was combined with Re as the god Atum-Re. According to the myths, he was the first substance (a hill) who emerged from the primeval waters. Atum created the deities Shu and Tefnut from his spittle or from his semen in the act of masturbation.
Early ram god of Mendes in Lower Egypt. He was a fertility deity whom women worshipped in the hope that he would aid them in conceiving children.
Egyptian demonic god. Depicted as a baboon with an erect penis. Babi was both a dangerous god, but was also associated with sexual prowess in the afterlife. As a demonic god he was said to live on human entrails. He is mentioned in the Books of the Dead where he attends the ceremony of the Weighing of the Heart in the Hall of the Two Truths. He waits with Ammut to devour the souls of those found unworthy. His penis was depicted being employed as the mast of the underworld ferry.
Banebdjedet ( Ba Neb Tetet, Banebdedet, Baneb Djedet, Banaded )
Ram god of Lower Egypt. His consort was the fish goddess Hatmehyt. He was the father of Harpokrates. In one tradition, he interceded in the contest between Horus and Set for the Egyptian throne. Banebdejedet advised the gods to consult the goddess Neith. Neith advised the gods to award the throne to Horus. In this account, he was said to reside on the island of Seheil near the first cataract of the Nile at Aswan, but generally his cult was centered on Mendes in the Nile Delta. He was depicted with the head of a ram.
"That Soul." Minor Egyptian god of malevolent aspect.
Egyptian god in the form of a crouching falcon. Worshipped at Behdet (Edfu), he later was identified as a local form of the god Horus.
A bird-like sun god. Linked with Atum, the better known sun god of Heliopolis. He was said to have been self-created from the primeval ocean.
Bes (Bisu)
Dwarf god who guarded against evil spirits and misfortune. Unlike the other Egyptian deities, who were usually depicted in profile, Bes was depicted full face. He was ugly and grotesque in appearance, with a large head, a protruding tongue, bowlegs and a bushy tail. He bore a plumed crown and wore the skin of a lion or panther. Despite his appearance, he was a beneficent deity and his appearance was meant to scare off evil spirits. He bore swords and knives to ward off evil spirits, as well as musical instruments, to create a din to frighten them off. Bes aided the goddess Taweret in childbirth. He was originally the protective deity of the royal house of Egypt, but became a popular household deity throughout Egypt.
An aspect of Ra-Atum in the form of a phoenix. Bennu was the patron of the reckoning of time and carrier of eternal light from the abode of the gods to the world of men.
Egyptian holy bull of Hermonthis and the living image of the god Montu. He had a white body and a black head.
Chenti-cheti ( Greek Chentechtai )
Originally an Egyptian crocodile god, he later took on the form of a falcon.
Chenti-irti ( Machenti-irti )
Falcon-god of law and order identified with Horus.
Ram god and ferryman of the dead. His cult was centered on Letopolis.
Chnum ( Chnumu )
Ram god and protector of the source of the Nile. He was said to fashion children out of clay and then place them in the mother's womb. Depicted as a human with a ram's head.
Egyptian moon god; the son of Amun and Mut. Normally depicted as a young man in the posture of a mummy.
Chontamenti ( Chonti-amentiu )
A god of the dead and the land of the west. He was represented as a crouching dog/jackal.
Djebauti (Zebauti)
A local god
The Egyptian god of toiletry.
Duamutef (Tuamutef)
God of the deceased's stomach
Geb (Keb, Seb)
Earth god. It is quite rare to find a ancient religion with the earth personified in the form of a man. Geb was the son of Shu and Tefnut and Brother-consort of the sky goddess Nut. Father of Osiris and Isis, Set and Nephthys. Geb was generally depicted lying on his back, usually wearing the crown of Lower Egypt, with the naked body of Nut arched above him. As such, he was often shown with an erect penis pointing upward toward Nut. Occasionally the air god Shu was shown standing on the body of Geb and supporting Nut, supposedly separating her from Geb. In any other case he is shown with the head of a goose. He as "the Great Cackler," he was represented as a goose. Also as "The Great Cackler" he was said to have laid the egg from which the sun was hatched.
God of the west and the western desert. Because the entrance to the underworld was in the western desert, he plays a part in the death cult. He is shown as a human with a hieroglyph that represents the west on his head.
Hapi (Hapy, Hap, Hep)
God of the Nile. Mostly associated with the annual floods, the inundation (which was responsible for the fertility of the land adjacent to the river). Although he had no specific cult centers, Hapi was believed to live in caves near the Nile cataracts. His court included a retinue of crocodile-gods and a harem of frog-goddesses. Depicted in human form with a large belly, female breasts (which indicated his powers of nourishment), a beard, colored blue or green, and a clump of aquatic plants. He often bore a tray of produce symbolizing the abundance and prosperity brought by the Nile floods.
Harakhti (Harachte)
God of the morning sun. His name means 'Horus of the Horizon.' He is a manifestation of Horus. The Pharaoh was supposedly born on the eastern horizon as Harakhti and to rule over the eastern and western horizon in that form. In Heliopolis he combined with Re and was worshipped as Re-Harakhti. He was depicted in the form of a falcon.
Harendotes (Egyptian Har-nedj-itef)
A guardian god and a manifestation of Horus. In this form, he guards Osiris in the underworld and is called 'Horus the savior of his father.' Har-nedj-itef also protects the dead and is portrayed as a falcon on sarcophagi.
Harmachis (Egyptian Har-em-akhet)
"Horus upon the Horizon" also known as Her-Akhety, "Horus of the Two Horizons." A manifestation of Horus where he figures as a sun god (identified with Re-Her-Akhety). Later the sphinx of Giza represented "Horus of the Morning Sun" because it/he looked toward the eastern horizon.
Horus' name, as the falcon-god 'with the two eyes,' which represented the sun and the moon. Harmerti was also worshipped as the hero that restrains monsters.
Haroeris (Egyptian Har-wer)
"The Elder Horus." Horus, when he reaches maturity, and avenges his father, Osiris, against his enemy, Seth. In this form, Horus defeats Seth and seizes the throne of Egypt.
Harpokrates (Harpocrates, Egyptian Har-pa-khered)
"Horus the Child." This was Horus as a young boy, not Horus as an adult. He is portrayed as a naked child with a finger in his mouth, sitting on a lotus flower or on the knee of his mother Isis. He was invoked to ward off dangerous creatures. He was also a vegetation god and was portrayed with a jar or a horn of plenty.
Harsiesis (Harsiese, Egyptian Har-sa-iset)
This was Horus as the son of Isis and a guardian deity. In the Osiris-myth he was born when Isis impregnated herself by her deceased husband, Osiris. Isis protects Horus as a child. The Pyramid texts state that Har-sa-iset performed the rite of the 'opening of the mouth' on the dead pharaoh, ensuring that the pharaoh would have the use of his faculties in the afterlife.
Harsomtus (Egyptian Har-mau)
"Horus the Uniter." Horus when he achieves the uniting of the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt.
God of infinity and a member of the Ogdoad. His consort was Hauhet.
An Egyptian falcon god.
Herishef (Arsaphes)
A ram-headed god who originated in Heracleopolis.
Horus (Egyptian Har or Hor)
Egyptian sky god; son of Isis and the dead Osiris. Usually depicted as a falcon or in human form with the head of a falcon. The sun and the moon are said to be his eyes. He was born at Khemmis in the Nile Delta, and Isis hid him in the papyrus marshes to protect him against Set, his father's murderer.
Harpokrates (Heru-Pa-Khret, Harpakhrad)
"Horus the child." This refers to his birth and secret rearing by Isis. In this form he is often depicted as a naked child seated on Isis's lap.
Haroeris (Har Wer)
"Horus the elder." In this form Horus battled against Set.
Harakhte (Harakhti, Heraktes)
"Horus of the horizon." Horus at Heliopolis, linked with Ra in the sun cult. In this form he is associated with the rising and setting sun. He was pictured as a falcon, or as a sphinx with the body of a lion. The Great Sphinx of Giza is an example of "Horus in/of the Horizon."
Harendotes (Har-nedj-itef, Har-End-Yotef)
"Horus the savior of his father." A reference to the avenging of his father's murder.
Harmachis (Heru-Em-Akhet, Harmakis)
"Horus in the horizon." Horus as symbol of resurrection, linked with the setting sun.
Harsiesis (Harsiese, Har-si-Ese, Hor-Sa-Iset)
"Horus, son of Isis." Horus as a baby/child
Harsomtus (Har-mau)
"Horus the Uniter." This is a reference to his role in uniting Upper and Lower Egypt.
Hor Behdetite (Behedti)
"Horus of Behdet." Originally a local form of Horus, at Behdet. In this form he symbolized by the winged solar disk.
The creating word of the sun-god of Heliopolis and a god of authority. With Sia Hu forms a primeval pair, both born from a drop of blood from the penis of Ra (sometimes by the tears of Ra), and together the personify the wisdom and insight of the sun-god. They also accompany him on his solar barque and help the bring order in chaos.
A protective deity of the underworld.
Imhotep (Amenhotep, Amenhotep-Son-of-Hapu)
Imhotep was the chief minister of the Pharaoh Djoser. He was the architect of the Step Pyramid, which was the first of the Egyptian Pyramids. Imhotep was latter raised to the level of a god (deified). As a god he was responsible with medicine and learning. Normally depicted as a seated man holding an open papyrus.
Imsety (Amset, Mestha)
God of the deceased's liver, he was protected by Isis; One of the Four Sons of Horus.
Joh (Jah)
An Egyptian god of the moon.
Kebechsenef (Kebehsenuf, Qebshenuf, Qebehsenuf)
A Son of Horus. He protected the Canopic jar where the viscera of the lower body where kept after mummification.
God of darkness and a member of the Ogdoad. His consort was Kauket.
Kepra (Kheper, Khepera, Khepris, Chepre, Chepri)
An Egyptian sun god who appeared often in the form of a scarab or a dung beetle and often as a beetle within the sun disk. He was a manifestation of the god Ra rising in the east at dawn. This association supposedly resulted for the similarity between the scarab rolling a ball of dung along the ground and Ra rolling the sun across the sky. Kepra was the one who pushed the sun up from the underworld to be reborn at dawn. In the Heliopolitan cosmology he appeared as a primordial sun god who created himself out of the earth. His principal cult center was at Heliopolis.
A scarab headed god. The Egyptians believed that Khepri pushed the sun across the sky in much the same fashion that a dung beetle (scarab) pushed a ball of dung across the ground.
Kherty (Cherti)
"Lower One." Ram god of the underworld and ferryman of the dead. In the Pyramid Texts Kherty was said to be a threat to the Pharaoh, who had to be defended by Ra himself. However, as an earth-god, he also acts as a guardian of the Pharaoh's tomb. Letopolis, northwest of Memphis, was Kherty's main cult center. He was shown as a man with the head of a ram or as a ram.
Khnum (Khnemu)
"To Create." Egyptian ram god. Khnum was credited with creating life on a potter's wheel at the behest of the other gods. He was also said to control the annual inundation of the Nile, although the god Hapi physically generates the inundation. The goddesses Satis and Anuket assisted him in their supervisory role. His major cult center was on the Elephantine Island near the first cataract of the Nile (Near modern Aswan) where mummified rams sacred to Khnum have been found. He also had an important cult center at Esna, to the north of the first cataract. He was usually depicted inhuman form with a ram's head - the horns extending horizontally on either side of the head - often before a potter's wheel on which a naked human was being fashioned.
Khonsu (Khons, Khensu, Chons)
"Wanderer." Egyptian moon god. Son of Amun and Mut (occasionally the son of Sekhmet) with whom he forms the triad of gods revered in Thebes. Depicted in human form, sometimes with the head of a hawk, clothed in a tight-fitting robe and wearing a skullcap topped by the crescent of the new moon subtending the disk of the full moon. His head was shaven except for the side-lock worn by Egyptian children, signifying his role as Khnosu-pa-khered - "Khonsu the child." His principal sanctuary was in Thebes, where he figured prominently as a member of the Theban triad. He also had a temple in Karnak. His sacred animal was the baboon, considered a lunar animal by the Egyptians.
The Egyptian god of Kusae.
Maahes (Mihos, Miysis)
A obscure lion god who may be of foreign origin. Maahes ("True Before Her") was worshipped in Bubastis, Leontopolis, and especially Upper Egypt. He is regarded in later times to be the son of Bastet and Ptah in Memphis. He is sometimes regarded as a son of the triad in Memphis with Nefertem and occasionally Imhotep. Maahes punished the transgressors of Ma'at. His protection was invoked over the innocent. He was represented as either a lion or a man with a lion's head and a knife.
Mahes (Miysis)
The Egyptian personification of the summer heat. Known as "Lord of the massacre." He was principally worshipped in the area of the Nile Delta. He is represented as a lion or a man with a lion's head.
An Egyptian serpent god. He defends the solar barque during Ra's nightly passage through the underworld. Usually shown as a snake coiled about the barque.
Lion-god, son of Bastet.
Chief of Heaven. A primeval god of Coptos. In early times he was a sky-god whose symbol was a thunderbolt. Also seen as a rain god that promoted fertility of nature, such as grain. Later he was revered as a fertility god who bestowed sexual powers on men. Normally represented as a human holding a flagellum.
Montu (Mont, Mentu, Methu; Greek Month)
Falcon-headed war god of Upper Egypt. His cult developed at Thebes and spread throughout Egypt under the Theban kings, who expanded the country's borders beginning around 2000 BC. He was the tutelary god of the Theban monarchs, and brought them victory in war. Depicted in human form with the head of a falcon, crowned with the solar disk, the uraeus cobra and two tall plumes, His sacred animal was a white bull with a black face, known as Buchis. After death, the bulls were buried in a necropolis near Hermothis (Armant) known as the Bucheum. His cult centers included Medu (Medamud), Karnak and Hermothis.
Nefertum (Nefertem; Greek Nepthemis)
Egyptian god of the primordial lotus blossom . A personification of the blue lotus of which the sun god Ra emerged. In the Pyramid Texts, he was described as the 'lotus blossom on the nose of Ra.' He was usually depicted in human form wearing a headdress topped by a lotus blossom. He could also be depicted with a lion's head when given as the child of the Memphite lion goddess Sekhmet out of her union with Ptah. His major cult center was in Memphis. In Buto, in the Nile Delta region, Nefertum was held to be the child of the cobra goddess Wadjet. Elsewhere his mother was called the cat goddess Bastet.
Nehebkau (Nehebu-Kau, Nehebkhau)
Egyptian snake god of the underworld. Represented either as a serpent with human arms and legs or with a man's body, holding the eye of Horus. In the Pyramid Texts, he was said to be the son of the scorpion goddess Serket. Another tradition made him the son of the earth god Geb and the harvest goddess Renenutet. According to legend, he was tamed by the sun god Ra and thenceforth acted as the god's servant, riding with him in the sun barque. His name was invoked in spells providing protection against snake bites and scorpion stings. Nehebkau protected the dead Pharaoh in the afterlife.
Nenun (Nenwen)
An Egyptian falcon-god.
An Egyptian god of grain. Neper was mostly associated with barley and emmer wheat.
Nun (Nu)
Egyptian god who personified the swirling primeval waters/chaos from which the cosmic order was produced. In the beginning there was only Nun. Consort of Naunet and a member of the Ogdoad. He was referred to as the 'father of the gods,' which referred to his primacy in the time rather than any literal parentage. Nun played no part in Egyptian religion rituals and had no temples dedicated to him. Nun was symbolized by the sacred lakes, which were associated with some temples, such as Karnak and Dendara. Depicted inhuman form holding the solar barque of Ra above his head.
Osiris (Usire)
Egyptian god of the underworld and of vegetation. Son of Nut and Geb and brother of Nephthys, Set and brother-husband to Isis. His birthplace was said to be Rosetau in the necropolis west of Memphis. Osiris was depicted in human form wrapped up as a mummy, holding the crook and flail. He was often depicted with green skin, alluding to his role as a god of vegetation. He wore a crown known as the 'atef,' composed of the tall conical whittle crown of Upper Egypt with red plumes on each side. Osiris had many cult centers, but the most important were at Abydos (Ibdju) in Upper Egypt, where the god's legend was reenacted in an annual festival and at Busirs (Djedu) in the Nile delta.
The Egyptian god of retaliation.
An Egyptian crocodile-god.
Egyptian creator god. Also a god of artisans, designers, builders, metal workers, architects and masons, whose skills he was said to have created. He was the one who created the barque for the dead to sail in. His major cult center was at Memphis. In Memphis and Thebes his consort was the lioness goddess Sekhmet. Together with Sekhmet's son Nefertum, they formed the 'Memphite triad.' His sacred animal was the bull. The Apis bull in Memphis, which acted as an intermediary between the god and humankind, represented Ptah in particular. He was depicted inhuman form, tightly wrapped like a mummy, with a shaven head or wearing a close fitting skull cap, holding the scepter of dominion composed of a 'djed' staff topped by the Ankh (life) symbol.
He incorporated the principal gods of creation, death, and after-life. Represented as a mummified king.
God of the deceased's intestines
Ra (Re)
Egyptian sun and creator god. He was usually depicted in human form with a falcon head, crowned with the sun disc encircled by the uraeus (the sacred cobra). The sun itself was taken to be either his body or his eye. He was said to traverse the sky each day in a solar barque and pass through the underworld each night on another solar barque to reappear in the east each morning. His principal cult center was Heliopolis ("sun city") near modern Cairo. Ra was also considered to be an underworld god, closely associated in this respect with Osiris. In this capacity he was depicted as a ram-headed figure.
Resheph (Reshpu, Reshef)
A god of war and thunder. He was of Syrian origin.
Sarapis (Serapis)
A god supposedly imported during the Ptolemacic period in Egypt. Later, a deity worshipped throughout the Roman Empire. Sarapis was supposedly the Greek form of Osiris-Apis, a deity who combined the attributes of the bull god Apis (or Greek Zeus) and the underworld god Osiris. To this the Hellensitic rulers of Egypt added characteristics taken from Greek deities such as Zeus, Dionysos, Hades, Helios and Asklepios to create a universal god. Depicted inhuman form with curly hair and crowned with a basket-shaped headdress known as a kalathos.
Sepa (Sep)
An Egyptian chthonic god.
The Egyptian god of oil and wine pressing.
Set (Seth, Setekh, Setesh, Seti, Sutekh, Setech, Sutech)
Egyptian god of Chaos who embodied the principles of hostility, if not outright evil. Early in Egyptian Mythology he was spoken with reverence as a god of storms and wind. Later on, after his battle with Horus, he was associated with foreign lands and was the adversary of the god Osiris. Set was usually depicted in human form with the head of aardvark. He was sometimes represented in entire animal form with a body similar to that of a greyhound. He was said to be the son of Nut and Geb or Nut and Ra, and the brother of Osiris, Isis and brother-husband of Nephthys. He was more commonly associated with the foreign, Semitic goddess Astarte and Anat. Despite his reputation he had an important sanctuary at Ombos in Upper Egypt, his reputed birthplace and had cults mostly in the Nile delta.
Shu (Su; Greek Sos)
Primordial Egyptian god of air and supporter of the sky. In the Heliopolitan creation myth, Shu was, with his sister-wife Tefnut, one of the first deities created by the sun god Atum, either from his semen or from the mucus of his nostrils. Tefnut then became Shu's consort, giving birth to the sky goddess Nut and the earth god Geb. Shu separated Geb and Nut (heaven and earth) by interposing himself between them. Depicted in human form wearing an ostrich feather, with his arms raised to support the goddess Nut above the supine form of Geb.
Sobek (Greek Suchos)
Egyptian crocodile god and son of Neith. Sobek symbolized the might of the Egyptian Pharaohs. At Ra's command, He performed tasks such as catching with a net the four sons of Horus as they emerged from the waters in a lotus bloom. Sobek was admired and feared for his ferocity. Depicted as a crocodile or in human form with the head of a crocodile, crowned either by a pair of plumes or sometimes by a combination of the solar disk and the uraeus. His cult was widespread. Faiyum was particularly noted as a center of his worship and at least one town came to be "Crocodilopolis" by the Greeks. Gebelein, Kom Ombo and Thebes in Upper Egypt were other centers of his cult.
Sokar (Seker; Greek Socharis, Sokaris)
Egyptian funerary god of the Memphis necropolis. Depicted in human form with a hawk's head. As early as the Old Kingdom, Sokar came to be regarded as a manifestation of the dead Osiris at Abydos in Upper Egypt. Also in the Old Kingdom, he came to be combined with Ptah as Ptah-Sokar, in which form he took the lioness goddess Sekhmet as his consort. In the Middle Kingdom, the three were sometimes merged in the form Ptah-Sokar-Osiris. Sokar was associated with the manufacture of various objects used in embalming and in funerary rituals. He became a god of the craftsman working in the necropolis at Memphis and ultimately a patron deity of the necropolis itself. He also played a prominent role at Thebes where he was depicted on the royal tombs. An important annual festival was held in his honor at Thebes. The festival celebrated the resurrection of Osiris in the form of Sokar and the continuity of the Egyptian monarchy. At this festival his image was carried in an elaborate boat known as the 'henu.'
Sopedu (Sopdu)
Egyptian god of the eastern frontier (eastern desert). Depicted either in the form of a falcon or as a Asiatic warrior with the Bedouin crowned with tall plumes. He was also the god of the Sinai Peninsula and of the turquoise mines in the Sinai. In the Pyramid Texts he took on an astral aspect. Impregnating Isis in her manifestation as the star Sirius, whose appearance in July heralded the annual inundation of the Nile. Isis subsequently gave birth to the composite deity Sopedu-Horus. His primary cult center was at Saft el-Henna in the northeastern Nile delta.
Tatenen (Tathen, Tatjenen, Tanen, Tenen, Ten)
"Exalted Earth." Primordial Egyptian god who personified the fertile silt of the Nile. Originally an independent god at Memphis, he was combined with Ptah in his aspect as a creator god. In this form he took on an a androgynous form and was given he epithet 'father of the gods.' He was usually depicted in human form with ram's horns and wearing a feathered crown. As a vegetation god, he could be portrayed with green skin.
Thoth (Thot, Thout; Egyptian Djhowtey, Djehuti, Tehuti, Zehuti)
Egyptian moon god. Over time, he developed as a god of wisdom, and came to be associated with magic, music, medicine, geometry, drawing, writing, surveying and astronomy. He was the inventor of the spoken and written word; credited with the invention of geometry, medicine and astronomy. He was also the scribe of the gods and patron of all scribes. Thoth was the measurer of the earth and counter of the stars as well as keeper and recorder of all knowledge including the Book of the Dead. Thoth was generally depicted in human form with the head of an ibis, wearing a crown consisting of a crescent moon topped by a moon disk. He could also be depicted as an ibis or a baboon which were both sacred to him. His principal sanctuary was at Hermopolis (Khmunu) in the Nile delta region.
An Egyptian plant-god
Wepwawet (Upuaut; Greek Ophois)
"Opener of Ways." Egyptian jackal god. Wepwawet had a dual roe as a god of war and of the funerary cult ad could be said to "open the way" both for the armies for the Pharaoh and for the spirits of the dead. He originated as a god of Upper Egypt, but his cult had spread throughout Egypt by the time of the Old Kingdom. Depicted as a jackal or in human form with the head of a jackal, often holding the 'shedshed,' a standard which led the Pharaoh to victory in war and on which the Pharaoh was said to ascend into the sky after death. Despite his origin in Upper Egypt, in inscription said that he was born in the sanctuary of the goddess Wadjet at Buto in the Nile delta. Another inscription identified him with Horus and thus extension with Pharaoh. Wepwawet also symbolized the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. In his capacity as a funerary deity, he used his adze to break open the mouth of the deceased in the "Opening of the Mouth" ceremony, which ensured that the person would have the enjoyment of all his faculties in the afterlife. At Abydos, the 'procession of Wepwawet' opened the mysteries of Osiris as a god of the dead.
Means "Hidden One." She was an Egyptian mother and/or fertility goddess. At the beginning of time aspects of Amaunet merged with those of the goddess Neith. Among the Ogdoad, Amun was her consort. She was regarded as a tutelary deity of the Egyptian Pharaohs, and had a prominent part in the Pharaoh's accession ceremonies.
Ammut (Ammit)
"Devouress of the Dead." Demonic goddess who attends the Judging of the Dead. She was depicted as having the head of a crocodile, the torso of a lioness and the hindquarters of a hippopotamus. She waited in the Judgement Hall of the Two Truths during the Weighing of the Heart ceremony, and devoured those who were sinners in life.
A goddess of Syrian origin. Anat had a warlike character. She usually was represented as a woman holding a shield and an axe.
Anentet ( Amenthes )
Egyptian goddess of the West. The west was considered to be the Underworld.
Anuket ( Anqet, Anquet, Greek Anukis )
Egyptian goddess who personified the Nile as Nourisher of the Fields. She was mainly associated with the lower cataracts near Aswan. Also was a protective deity of childbirth. She was considered to be the daughter of Ra, Satis or Khnum. Depicted in human form, bearing a crown topped with ostrich feathers. Her principal sanctuary was at Elephantine. Her sacred animal was the gazelle.
Astarte (As-start-a)
A goddess of Syrian origin. Introduced in Egypt during the 18th Dynasty. Was also known as The Queen of Heaven and as such, her cult often overlapped with Isis' worshipers.
Egyptian wife of Herakhty (Horus).
Bastet ( Bast, Ubasti )
Egyptian sun, cat and of the home goddess. As a sun goddess she represents the warm, life giving power of the sun. A goddess of the home, pregnant women and of the domestic cat, although she sometimes took on the war-like aspect of a lioness. Normally said to be the daughter of the sun god Ra, but sometimes her father was said to be Amun. Bastet was wife of Ptah and mother of the lion-god Mihos. She was also associated with 'Eye of Ra', as such she was a instrument of the sun god's vengeance. She was depicted as a cat or in human form with the head of a cat, often holding the sistrum. Her cult was centered on her sanctuary at Bubastis in the Delta region. A necropolis has been found there, containing mummified cats.
Bat (Bata)
Cow goddess of fertility and primarily a deity of Upper Egypt. She was depicted as a cow or in human form with cow's ears and horns.
Egyptian goddess, a female version of Bes.
Buto ( Edjo, Udjo, Wadjet, Wadjit )
A tutelary goddess of Lower Egypt.
Egyptian goddess of the twentieth nome of Lower Egypt.
Hathor (Hethert, Athyr)
Cow goddess. A goddess of love and motherhood, Hathor was the daughter of Nut and Ra. In early Egyptian mythology she was said to be the mother Horus, but was later replaced with Isis. After being displaced, Hathor became a protectress of Horus. The Greeks identified Hathor with Aphrodite.
Hat-mehyt (Hatmehit)
Fish goddess of Mendes in the Delta and the consort of Banebdjedet. She was occasionally represented as a woman with a fish on her head.
Goddess of infinity and a member of the Ogdoad. Her consort was Heh
A scorpion goddess.
Heket (Heqet)
A goddess of childbirth and protector of the dead. She is the daughter of Ra and is sometimes called the 'Eye of Ra' and 'Mother of the gods'. She is shown as a frog, a symbol of life and fertility (millions of them are born after the annual inundation of the Nile), or as a woman with a frog's head. Women often wore amulets of her during childbirth. She is regarded as the consort of Khnum.
Hemsut (Hemuset)
The Egyptian goddess of fate.
A frog-goddess of Antinoopolis. She was a helper of women during childbirth. At Antinoopolis she was associated with Khnum.
See the goddess Renenutet
An Egyptian cow goddess. The ancient Egyptians referred to milk as 'the beer of Hesat.'
She was a goddess of Heliopolis whose name means, "she comes who is great." She was a counterpart to the creator god Atum. Normally depicted wearing a scarab beetle on her head.
Isis (Aset, Eset, Aat, Menkhet, Hert, Ament, Menhet)
"Throne." Egyptian mother goddess. Isis has many names: "Mistress of Magic,The Queen of Heaven (similar to Astarte), The Great Lady, the God-Mother, lady of Re-a-nefer; Isis-Nebuut, Lady of Sekhet; Lady of Besitet; Isis in Per Pakht, the Queen of Mesen; Isis of Ta-at-nehepet; Isis, dweller in Netru; Isis, Lady of Hebet; Isis in P-she-Hert; Isis, Lady of Khebt; Usert-Isis, Giver of Life, Lady of Abaton, Lady of Philae and Lady of the Countries of the South."
Goddess of darkness and a member of the Ogdoad. Her consort was Kek.
Goddess who personified the purification through water. Daughter of Anubis, Kebechet plays an important role in the funeral cult. Her appearance is that of a snake.
Ma'at (Maat, Mayet)
"Straight": law and order. Egyptian goddess of cosmic harmony, truth and justice. Ma'at was depicted as a woman with an ostrich feather on her head, she was sometimes represented only by the feather. Ma'at was closely associated with Ra from the beginning and eventually became known as the 'daughter of Ra.' Thoth was sometimes given as her consort. The Pharaohs were said to derive their authority from Ma'at and claimed to uphold the cosmic order embodied in her. In the funerary papyri of the New Kingdom it was Ma'at who sat in judgement at the weighting of the heart ceremony in the Hall of the Two Truths. The heart of the deceased was weighed against the image of Ma'at, often represented simply by the ostrich feather. Her only know sanctuary was in Karnak.
The first deity to be mentioned who is half-cat (domesticate). She appears to be associated with the protection of the king's chambers. OR Panther Goddess Her ferocity prevails over snakes and scorpions.
Mekhit (Mechit)
A lion goddess and consort of Anhur
Meret (Mert)
The Egyptian goddess of song and rejoicing.
Meretseger (Mertseger,Meresger)
"She who loves silence." Egyptian cobra goddess and protective deity of the Theban necropolis. She was believed to live on a mountain overlooking the Valley of the Kings. Worshiped by the workers at the necropolis, she was believed to poison or blind anyone who committed a crime. Supposedly, this belief was intended to reinforce the taboo against desecrating or robbing the tombs. She was depicted as a coiled cobra or as a cobra with the head of a woman and a single human arm. Her cult died out when the Theban necropolis was abandoned during the XXI Dynasty.
Egyptian vulture goddess and chief goddess of Thebes. Also a mother goddess occasionally referenced to as the queen of all gods. She was depicted in the form of a vulture or in a human form with a vulture headdress and the combined crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt. She was usually dressed in a bright red or blue gown. In Thebes she replaced Amaunet as the consort of the sun god Amun. With their adoptive son Khonsu, the two formed the Theban triad. Her principal sanctuary was in Thebes.
Goddess of the primordial abyss and member of the Ogdoad. Her consort was Nun.
A goddess whose name means "mistress of the offering." She is a feminine counterpart of the male creative principle of Atum. She supposedly was "namely his Hand with which he brought about the ejaculation that brought the cosmos into being." A goddess of Heliopolis.
Neith (Neit)
Egyptian creator goddess and of war, the hunt and domestic arts. Her symbol was a shield bearing crossed arrows. Said to be a self-begotten virgin. She later came to be identified as the consort of Set and the mother of the crocodile god Sobek. Her principal sanctuary was at Sais in the Nile Delta, where she originally developed as a local goddess. After rising to national prominence, a sanctuary was dedicated to her in Memphis. In the Esna cosmology, Neith was said to have emerged from the primeval waters to create the world, subsequently following the Nile north to the delta where she founded Sais. Depicted in the form of a woman wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt and bearing a shield with crossed arrows.
Nekhbet (Nekhebet, Nechbet)
"She of Nekhbet." Egyptian vulture and tutelary goddess of Upper Egypt. She was also a protective goddess of childbirth who was depicted as the nurse of the future monarch during his infancy. In her capacity as protectress of the infant monarch she was known as the "Great White Cow of Nekheb." She was usually depicted as a vulture wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt and holding the eternity symbols in her talons. Her principal sanctuary was in Nekheb (El Kab) in Upper Egypt.
Nephthys (Greek form; Egyptian Neb-hut, Nebthet)
"Mistress/Lady of the House." Egyptian goddess of the dead and daughter of Geb and Nut. Nephthys was the sister of Isis, Osiris and Set. She was the consort of Set until Set killed Osiris. According to one tradition, she was also the mother of Anubis by Osiris. Nephthys' principal sanctuary was in Heliopolis. Along with Isis, she was one of the guardians of the corpse of Osiris. She is shown in human form wearing a crown in the form of the hieroglyph for house. Sometimes depicted as a kite guarding the funeral bier of Osiris.
An Egyptian corn goddess. She is the female counterpart of the god Neper.
Nut (Neuth, Nuit)
Egyptian goddess of the sky and the heavens. Daughter of Shu and Tefnut, in the Heliopolitan genealogy. Originally just a mother goddess who had numerous children. The hieroglyph of her name is thought to be a womb although a water pot represented the womb. She was typically depicted as a woman with her elongated and naked body arching above Shu and the earth god Geb to form the heavens. Sometimes she appeared in the form of a cow whose body forms the sky and heavens. Nut was the barrier separating the forces of Chaos form the ordered cosmos in this world. Her fingers and toes were believed to touch the four cardinal points or directions. The sun god Ra was to be reborn from her vagina each morning. Nut was also a goddess of the dead, and the Pharaoh was said to enter her body after death, from which he would later be resurrected. Her principal sanctuary was in Heliopolis.
Pachet (Pakhet)
Lioness Goddess of the Eastern Desert and a night huntress.
Qadesh (Qetesh)
A goddess of Syrian origin. Often represented as a woman standing on a lion's back.
Renenutet (Ernutet, Renenet)
Egyptian cobra goddess. Depicted either as a hooded cobra or in human form with the head of a cobra. Her name seems to have the meaning of nurturing or raisin a child, and she was both a goddess associated with motherhood and the tutelary deity of the Pharaoh. Her gaze was said to have the power to vanquish all enemies and also to ensure the fertility of the crops and the bounty of the harvest. She was associated with the magical properties believed to inhere in the linen bandages that wrapped the dead and was known at Edfu as the 'mistress of the robes.' She had an important cult center in the fertile Faiyum region, where she was closely associated with the local crocodile god Sobek. In the Greco-Roman period she was worshipped as the goddess Hermouthis, in which form she came to be combined with Isis.
The Egyptian goddess of youth and springtime.
An Egyptian hippopotamus goddess.
Goddess of the inundation of the Nile and fertility
Satis (Greek form, also Sati; Egyptian Satjit or Satet)
An Egyptian goddess whose primary role was that of a guardian of Egypt's southern (Nubian) frontier and killing the enemies of the Pharaoh with her arrows. As 'Queen of Elephantine' she figures as the consort of Khnum and the mother of Anuket, the three sometimes being referred to as the 'Elephantine's triad.' Depicted in human form wearing the tall conical white crown of Upper Egypt bounded on either side by plumes or antelope horns, holding a scepter and the Ankh (life) symbol. She had a major sanctuary on the island of Sahel near Elephantine (Aswan). She was also associated with the annual inundation of the Nile.
Sekhmet (Sachmet, Sakhmet)
"The Powerful One." Egyptian lioness goddess, daughter of Ra. In Memphis she formed part of the Memphite triad together with Ptah as her consort and Nefertum (otherwise the son of Bastet) as her son. Depicted as a lioness or in a human form with the head of a lioness. She was generally shown crowned by the solar disk, holding the Ankh (life) symbol or a scepter in the shape of a papyrus reed. In Thebes Sekhmet came to be combined with Mut, the consort of the Theban sun god Amun. She had a warlike aspect and was said to breathe fire at the enemies of the Pharaoh. Like the goddess Hathor, Sekhmet could become the 'eye of Ra,' an agent of the sun god's punishment. She was believed to be the bearer of plague and pestilence, but in a more benign aspect she was called upon in spells and amulets to ward of disease.
Selkis (Selkit, Selket, Selkhet, Serqet)
A scorpion-goddess who was identified with the scorching heat of the sun. A protector goddesses, she guarded coffins and Canopic jars. Sometimes shown as a woman with a scorpion on her head.
A cow goddess.
Serket (Selket, Selkis, Selchis, Selquet; Egyptian Serket-hetyt)
"She who causes the throat to breathe." Egyptian scorpion goddess. Depicted in human form with a scorpion-shaped headdress or with a scorpion body and a human head. She was an early tutelary deity of the Egyptian monarchs. Serket was associated with mortuary rites and helped guard the Canopic jars in which the viscera of the dead were placed. From this association she came to be a tutelary goddess of the dead. She was called upon in Egyptian magic to advert venomous bites and stings.
Seshat (Sesat, Sesheta)
The goddess of writing; the divine keeper of royal annals. Was represented as a woman.
An Egyptian goddess of destiny.
Sothis (Greek form; Egyptian Sopdet)
Egyptian goddess who personified the Dog Star, Sirius. The appearance of Sirius at dawn in July (called the helical rising) heralds the annual inundation of the Nile. She naturally became associated with fertility and prosperity resulting from the annual floods. Depicted in human form, wearing the tall conical white crown of Upper Egypt, surmounted by a star. In a forth century BC papyrus, Isis identifies herself with Sothis as she laments the death of Osiris and vows to follow him in his manifestation as the constellation Orion.
An ancient Egyptian goddess. She was the consort of Horus when he was Har-wer ("Horus the Elder").
Tawret (Taueret, Taurt, Apet, Opet; Greek Thoueris, Thoeris, Toeris)
"The Great One." Egyptian hippopotamus goddess and protective deity of childbirth, also protectress of rebirth into the afterlife. She was depicted with the head of a hippopotamus, the legs and arms of a lion, the tail of a crocodile, human breasts, and a swollen belly. This appearance was meant to frighten off any spirits that might be harmful to the child. She was often depicted holding the Sa, amulet symbolizing protection. As a protective deity of childbirth, she was often depicted in the company of the dwarf god Bes, who ad a similar function. Taweret was the most popular among ordinary Egyptians as a protectress. Pregnant women commonly wore amulets bearing the goddess' image.
Tefnut (Tefnet, Tefenet; Greek Tphenis)
Primeval Egyptian goddess personifying moisture, particularly in the forms of dew, rains and mist. According to the Heolopolitan cosmology, she was the daughter of Atum (sun), sister-wife of Shu (air) and the mother of Geb (earth) and Nut (sky). Tefnut could take on the role of the 'eye of Ra' (Ra being another form of her sun god father), in which case she was depicted as a lioness or in human form with the head of a lioness. She could also be depicted as a snake coiled about a scepter. In the Pyramid Texts she was said to create pure water from her vagina. Her principal sanctuary was at Heliopolis. Tefnut and Shu were also worshipped as a pair of lions at Leontopolis in the Nile delta.
The Egyptian goddess of beer.
An Egyptian rabbit-goddess.
Wadjet (Buto, Uajyt, Uto)
Cobra and tutelary goddess of Lower Egypt.
The Egyptian protector goddess of the young.
The Egyptian goddess of Hermonthis.