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8 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
describe marcus gunn jaw winking phenomenon
synkinesis between the pterygoid muscles and levator palpebrae - elevation of lid occurs when mouth widens
unknown cause
some improve with age
where is the lesion in Horner's syndrome? what is the appearance of eyes
anywhere along sympathetic pathway (sympathetic dilates pupil) therefore pupil is miosed

How many neurons carry sympathetic innervation to orbit?
describe the pathway of the first (central) neuron in the sympathetic pathway
commences in hypothalamus
synapses in intermediolateral cell column of lower cervical/upper thoracic spinal cord
describe the pathway of the second (preganglionic) neuron in the sympathetic pathway
travels from the thorax --> behind carotid sheath
synapses in superior ganglion
describe the pathway of the third (postganglionic) neuron in sympathetic pathway
travels along internal carotid artery

innervates: smooth muscle of eyelids, DILATOR, sweat glands, blood vessels
Why is it important to differentiate between preganglionic and postganglionic Horner's? How is this done?
post ganglionic is usually benign

usually done by drop of 4% cocaine - Horner's pupil will not dilate

Horner's pupil will dilate with a drop of hydroxyamphetamine (only if damage is central or preganglionic)
what is blepharospasm and how is it treated
involuntary contraction of orbicularis oculi
treated with botox