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102 Cards in this Set

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Ddx for dyspnoea?
URT dz
Egg binding
Coelomic fluid
Lead poisoning
Goitre
Organomegaly
CV dz
Main bacteria in URT dz
Aeromonas
Mycoplasma
Pseudomonas
Aspergillus
Chlamydophila

+ low vit A
C/S URT dz
Swelling and pain of infraorbital sinus
Inflammation of conjunctiva and periorbital area
Serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge (can be inspissated)
Tx of URT dz
Sinus flush
Nebulisation
Sx debridement
What do rhinoliths dvp from
Sinusitis or rhinitis with predisposing factors
Predisposing factors of rhinoliths?
Low vit A and tobacco smoke
What do large rhinoliths do
Destroy ST and lead to bone lysis and change to the sinus pathways
What is an extra thing besides bacterial infection that can lead to rhinoliths in budgies?
Knemidocoptes mite infection
Tx of rhinoliths
Mass removal
Culture
Flush with AB in saline
Complications of rhinolith removal?
Bleeding
Recurrence
What is mycotic tracheitis?
Inflam that causes syringeal obstruction

Acute granuloma formation occurs over 12 days
What is the pathognomonic sign of mycotic tracheitis?
Change in voice
Tx of mycotic tracheitis
Air sac tube
URT/LRT endoscope
Remove granulomas OR break-up with hope that they will pass through the bronchi and into caudal air sac
What airway parasite do passerines and raptors get?
Tapeworm syngamus trachea
What is the name of the air sac mite that canaries and finches yet?
Sternostoma tracheacolum
Tx for airway parasites?
PO, SC or spot-on ivermectin
What causes pneumonia?
Toxins
Allergins
Inflam/infection
Scope signs of pneumonia?
Congestion
Fibrosis
Abscesses
Pigmentation
What are the most common infections causing air sacculitis?
Chlamydophila
Aspergillus
Mycoplasma

+ inhaled irritants
How does air sacculitis present?
Resp distress
OR
Subclinical

Has assn with URT dz and pneumonia
What is the main aspergillus isolate?
Aspergillus fumigatus
What airway dz does aspergillus cause
Any of them

URT
Pneumonia
Air sacculitis
Where is aspergillus found?
Ubiquitous in enviro and resp tract of healthy birds
How is aspergillus spread?
NOT contagious

Inhalation of environmental spores (damp straw litter, dust, mouldy feed, poor ventilation)
Who does aspergillus like to target?
Immunosuppressed birds (poor nutrition, AB, age, export)
C/S of aspergillus?
Depends on where plaques are - URT vs LRT
What should aspergillus cytology slides with stained with?
Lactophenol blue to reveal septal hyphae
Diag of aspergillus?
Cytology
Histopath
Scope
Bloods
Rads
Bloods for aspergillus?
Heterophilic leukocytosis
Lymphopaenia
Heterophile toxic change
Non-regenerative anaemia
Hyperglobulinaemia
Hypoalbuminaemia
Rad signs of air sacculitis?
Thick air sac walls
Hyperinflation
Tx of aspergillus?
Amphotericin B directly applied with scope or injected into a sinus (rarely given IV because of nephrotox and irritancy)

Itraconazole PO but takes a long time to kick in so need adjuvant therapy

Terbinafine instead of itraconazole in GREY PARROTS

F:10 nebulised at 1:250 for 4-12 weeks (rest of life?)
Who does chlamydophila psittaci affect?
Parrots

Zoonotic to mammals and humans
How is psittacosis spread
Faecal
Nasal
Ocular
Describe C. psittaci lifecycle
Obligate intracellular parasite

Biphasic dvp cycle - infective stage is the elementary body which are shed and then the reticulate body which reproduces by binary fission with hosts cells
Diagnosis of C. psittaci
Faecal PCR gold standard but need poooled 3-5 samples bc intermittently shed

Rads show h-megaly and air sacculitis

PM impression smears with MACHIAVELOS stain shows inclusion bodies
C/S psittacosis
Conjunctivitis
Nasal discharge
Ocular swelling
Sneezing
Depression
Weight loss
Bright green diarrhoea
CNS issues
sudden death
Who is a psittacosis asymptomatic carrier?
Cockatiels
Pigeons
Budgies
Tx of psittacosis
6 weeks doxy (once weekly PO or injection)
When do you follow-up test for psittacosis?
2 weeks post PO meds
3 weeks post IV meds
Human signs of psittacosis?
Neck pain
Headache
Fever
Resp infection
Fatal heart dz
Main presenting signs of skin dz?
Feather plucking
Self trauma
What is psittacine beak and feather dz?
Viral infection of parrots caused by a DNA circovirus and has two strains - PBFD 1 is in all spp and PBFD 2 is in lorikeets
How is PBFD spread?
Feather dander
Faeces
Inhalation
Ingestion
Vertical
What cells does PBFD attack?
Rapidly dividing ones:
Epis
GIT
Immune system
How many forms of PBFD C/S seen?
3 - chronic, acute and peracute
Principles of O2 therapy
Should be at least 40% O2 at rates of 200-300 mL/hour for a small cage; some tolerate a face mask. - can use own patients xporter
Feed it thru a water chamber for humidity (prevents drying out of mm)

Can nebulise small birds
Is birds are compromised what is the RR?
6 L/min
Ddx for nares discharge?
Sinusitis
Air sacculitis
Chronic PBFD
Lesions dvp bt 6 mo and 3 yrs with rapid-growing feathers first (powder down); grow abnormally w/ haem pulp cavities and fractured shafts

Beak shiny due to lack of powder down and may be overgrown
Acute PBFD?
Young birds during 1st feather formation; charac by depression +/- diarrhoea and dystrophic feathers
Peracute PBFD
Seen in cockatoos and african grey NESTLINGS (by 16 weeks) - get severe leukopaenia, regurg and death even before feather lesions dvp
How are PBFD 1 and 2 different?
Strain 2, the lorikeet one, is not pathogenic
Diagnosing PBFD?
PCR from pulpy feathers (use keel) or blood (is present in the leukocytes)

Can do bone marrow biopsy

PM - bursa of fabricus
Tx of PBFD
Supportive care, esp for 2ary pathogens

COntrol with quarantine
What is polyoma virus
DNA papovavirus that affects all psittacines and passerines (usu budgies)
Spread of polyoma virus?
Faeces
Feather dust
Vertical xmission
C/S BUDGIES polyoma virus
Neonatal death
If survive over 15 days then lose tail and flights feathers which resolves over months
C/S OTHER PSITTACINE polyoma virus
Sudden death
WEight loss
Diarrhoea
Regurg
SC haem
Dyspnoea
PU

Can have a chronic form

Passerines usu just acute death
Diag polyoma virus?
PCR (not finches)
PM signs (hep necrosis, bursal lymphoid depletion, inclusion bodies in feather follicles)

Vaccine in the USA
What is pox virus
DNA virus with 10 spp that affects raptors and pigeons commonly
Spread of pox virus
Mosquitoes
DC
Inhalation
Ingestion
Wounds
3 forms of pox virus
Wet
Dry
Septicaemic
Wet pox
Diphtheritic

Lesions on mm of oropharynx affecting eating and breathing
Dry pox
Cutaneous

Nodular lesions around eyes, beak and feet with scabs falling off after 4 weeks
Septicaemic pox
Canaries and sparrows

Fatal pneumonia +/- enteritis
Diag of pox
Biopsy
Cytology (eos inclusion bodies in epi cells)
What do you have to ddx dry pox from
Ectoparasites, which actually might have a link to the dz entry anyway
What do you have to ddx wet pox from
Low vit A
Trichomonas
Aspergillus
Tx of pox
Supp care
AB
Nutrition
Ocular lube

DONT remove scabs

Can import a vaccine
Ddx poor quality feathers
Poor nutrition
Poor husbandry
Viral - PBFD, polyoma
Hypothyroidism
Bacterial/fungal folliculitis
Liver dz
Air sacculitis
Ectos
Boredom/neurosis
Repro dz
Coelomic mass
PROTOCOL feather plucking
Bloods-rads-endoscope
Feather microscopy, culture
PCR

All neg? Behavioural

Remove traumatised feathers under GA (regrowth in 8 weeks)

Eliz collar las resort

Behavioural modifiers
Advice to o about feather plucking?
Increase nutritional plane to encourage feather growth
Exercise
Branches to gnaw (boredom)
Increased attn
Hiding space
Baths
12:12 light schedule
UV-B light
Behavioural modifiers for feather plucking
Anxiolytics - busipirone
Antidepressants - amitriptyline
Dopamine antagonists - haloperidol
How does repro frustration manifest re feathers?
Plucking at vent, legs and rump
Main skin parasite of budgies?
Cnemidocoptes pilae
What does Cnemidocoptes pilae cause and tx
Hyperkeratosis
Crusting and scaling on cere, beack and feet

"scaly face"

Ivermectin or fipronil
What is macrorhabdus ornithogaster
megabacteria (gastric yeast) that resembles g (+) rods seen in canaries, lovebirds and budgies
What does macrorhabdus ornithogaster cause
Proventricular/ventricular dz with C/S of wasting, lethargy and passing undigested food
Diag of macrorahbdus
Dilated provent on rads (hour glass constriction between provent and vent)

PM shows provent ulceration, dilation, thick provent wall and mucus
What is proventricular dilatation dz (PDD)
Bornavirus affecting psittacines, finches and pigeons w/ C/S of regurg, weight loss, altered GIT motility, whole seeds in faeces, head-shaking and CNS issues. 2ary infections common
PDD xmission and progression
Unknown xmission

Patho assd with lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis and encephalopathy; dz course is a few weeks
Diag and tx of PDD
Rads - provent and intestinal enlargement
Biopsy and histopath
Tx not curative but palliative (antiemetics, celecoxib to reduce nerve inflam)
Who gets lead poisoning
Waterfowl and raptors
C/S lead poisoning
Depression, V + D, polyphagia, polyuria, death
Diag and tx lead poisoning
C/S, rads and blood

Supp care, diazepam, chelation therapy (injectable CaEDTA or oral penicillamine) for CaEDTA protocol is 5 days on 5 days off
Who gets excessive egg laying and what is it due to
Cockatiels

Excessive stimulation of breeding behaviour by the presence of another bird or inanimate object (or person!)
Tx of excessive egg laying
Dont remove eggs, let them brood. Remove nest boxes and items that may sitmulate laying. Reduce light to 8 hours and reduce caloric intake

Deslorelin to inhibit ovulation - if all unsuccesful do a salphinohysterectomy
What causes egg binding
Ca/Vit D3 deficiencies
Oversized or misshapen eggs
Uterine intertia due to excessive laying
Metritis
Obesity
C/S egg binding
Depression
Tail bobbing
Dyspnoea
Wide stance
Swollen coelom
Tx egg binding
Heat and humidity to start with 10% ca borogluconate +/- O2.

If not passed in a few houurs remove by physical manip - lube in cloaca and manip while applying gentle abd pressure.

If fails, ovocentesis w a large bore needle via cloaca or thru coelomic wall under GA to collapse egg
What is egg yolk peritonitis due to
Ectopic ovulation usualy, but sometimes seen with salphingitis, metritis, neoplasia or ruptured oviduct

Can be sterile or septic
Tx of egg yolk peritonitis
Some like med tx but most need removal of yolk material and lavage
C/S yolk peritonitis
Coelomic enlargement
Dyspnoea
Tail bobbing
Depression
Who gets fatty liver dz
Captive parrots
Most common vit issue in birds?
Hypovit A
What is hypovit A
Parrots on a seed diet get it; presents as squamous metaplasia of epithelial membranes leading to poor feathering, colouration, reproduction and chronic resp issues

LT sign is renal dz
See blunted choanal slit
What is hypovit D
Leads to poor reproduction and egg shell quality as well as juvenile osteodystrophy and hypoCa (grey parrots have an increased incidence

Responds to vit d injections and short term Ca supp; prevent with a formulated diet and increased UV-B radiation
How much blood can you take?
1% (5 mL in african grey)
Induction in birds?
Ketamine and medetomidine IM pectoral m; 5-10 minutes induction time
HR in budgies, african grey and birds of prey
700
400
60
Bird fluids
Assume 10% dehydrated
Maintenance 50 mL/kg/day

Day 1 give 50% deficit + maintenance
Day 2+3 25% deficit and main
Day 4 main

Split into 5 mL amounts and so several times daily
How much can be crop tubed?
1-2 Ml smalls up to 20 mL in larger breeds (5% bw)