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117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The degree to which a test measures an intended content area; it is determined by expert judgment and requires both item validity and sampling validity.
content validity
The degree to which scores on a test are consistent, or stable, over time.
Validity determined by relating performance on a test to performance on another criterion; includes concurrent and predictive validity.
criterion-related validity
The group to which the researcher would like the results of a study to be generalizable.
A general strategy or plan for conducting a research study written to describe the study's basic structure and goals.
In a prediction study, the variable the prediction is based on.
A qualitative approach that studies the cultural patterns and perspectives of participants in their natural setting.
Refers to the population to which the researcher would ideally like to generalize results.
target population
An activity or characteristic believed to make a difference with respect to some behavior; also referred to as the experimental variable, the cause, and the treatment.
independent variable
Comparing an individual's repeated performances over time on a single assessment.
Research concerned with the quality, effectiveness, merit, or value of educational programs, products, or practices.
evaluation research
The process of selecting a sample that is believed to be representative of a given population. Also referred to as judgment sampling.
purposive sampling
Indicates score variation that occurs from form to form of a test; also referred to as alternate-forms reliability.
equivalent-forms reliability
Mental characteristic relating to emotion, such as attitude, interest, and value.
Sampling in which individuals are selected from a list by taking every Kth name, where K equals the number of individuals on the list divided by the number of participants desired for the sample.
systematic sampling
Reasoning based on developing generalizations from a limited number of related observations or experiences.
inductive reasoning.
The process of selecting a sample using a sampling technique that permits the researcher to specify the probability, or chance, that each member of a defined population has of being selected for the sample.
probability sampling
Measurement instrument used to determine what respondents believe, perceive, or feel about self, others, activities, institutions, or situations.
attitude scale
A means of measuring the knowledge, skill, feelings, intelligence, or aptitude of an individual or group.
In a prediction study, the variable that is predicted.
Measurement instrument used to determine respondent's attitude toward self, others, activities, institutions, or situations.
rating scale
An approach in which teachers study their own problems or concerns in their own classrooms.
action research
A measure of relative position indicating the percentage of scores that fall at or below a given score.
percentile rank
Research conducted for the purpose of applying, or testing, theory and evaluating its usefulness in solving problems.
applied research
The process of selecting a sample in such a way that identified subgroups in the population are represented in the sample in the same proportion that they exist in the population or in equal proportion.
stratified sampling
A qualitative research strategy that involves spending considerable time in the setting under study, immersing oneself in this setting, and collecting as much relevant information as possible as unobtrusively as possible.
Standard scores that divide a distribution into nine parts.
Research conducted for the purpose of theory development or refinement.
basic research
The process of selecting a sample based on required, exact numbers, or quotas, of persons of varying characteristics.
quota sampling
In research, this means that the researcher knows the identities of participants in a study but promises to not reveal the information to others.
Systematic sampling error; two major sources of this are the use of volunteers and the use of available groups.
sampling bias
An instrument that measures the current status of individuals with respect to proficiency in given areas of knowledge or skill.
achievement test
The process of selecting a number of individuals (a sample) from a population, preferably in such a way that the individuals selected represent the larger group from which they were selected.
Sampling in which intact groups, not individuals, are randomly selected.
cluster sampling
A number of individuals selected from a population for a study, preferably in such a way that they represent the larger group from which they were selected.
A measure of potential used to predict how well someone is likely to perform in a future situation.
aptitude test
A detailed description of a proposed study designed to investigate a given problem.
research plan
Exists when two tests are identical in every way except for the actual items included.
The highest level of measurement that classifies participants, ranks participants, is based upon predetermined equal intervals, and has a true zero point.
ratio variable
An abstraction that cannot be observed directly; a concept invented to explain behavior.
The degree to which a test consistently measures whatever it measures.
Examination of test instruments to locate and identify known and unknown potentially harmful effects of instrument use.
consequential validity
The degree to which a test samples the total intended content area.
sampling validity
The degree to which the scores on a test are related to the scores on another, already established test administered at the same time, or to some other valid criterion available at the same time.
concurrent validity
The degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure; a test is valid for a particular purpose for a particular group.
Research that attempts to determine the cause, or reason, for existing differences in the behavior or status of groups of individuals; also referred to as ex post facto research.
causal-comparative research
Expected, chance variation in variables that occurs when a sample is selected from a population.
sampling error
Assessment designed to measure affective characteristics.
affective test
A test that is administered, scored, and interpreted the same every time and place it is used.
standardized test
The change or difference in behavior that occurs as a result of the independent variable; also referred to as the criterion variable, the effect, the outcome, or the posttest.
dependent variable
The degree to which a test is able to predict how well an individual will do in a future situation.
predictive validity
Research that involves collecting data to determine whether, and to what degree, a relationship exists between two or more quantifiable variables.
correlation research
A measurement scale that classifies participants and ranks them in terms of the degree to which they possess a characteristic of interest.
ordinal variable
The general term for the process of collecting, synthesizing, and interpreting information. A test is a type of this.
A type of reliability based on the internal consistency of a test that is estimated by dividing a test into two equivalent halves and correlating the scores on the two halves.
split-half reliability
The process of selecting a sample in such a way that all individuals in the defined population have an equal and independent chance of being selected for the sample.
random sampling
Comparing an individual's performance on an assessment to a predetermined, external standard.
criterion referenced
A subgroup derived from a sample; a variable that can be divided into groups.
Research in which at least one independent variable is manipulated, other relevant variables are controlled, and the effect on one or more dependent variables is observed.
experimental research
A small-scale study conducted prior to the conducting of the actual study; the entire study is conducted, every procedure is followed, and the resulting data are analyzed according to the research plan.
pilot study
Refers to the population from which the researcher can realistically select participants.
accessible population
An estimate of how often one can expect errors of a given size in an individual's test score.
standard error of measurement
Mental characteristics relating to intellect, such as mathematics achievement, literacy, reasoning, or problem solving.
A derived score that expresses how far a given raw score is from some reference point, typically the mean, in terms of standard deviation units.
standard score
The analysis of data to determine their accuracy, which takes into consideration the knowledge and competence of the author, the time delay between the occurrence and recording of events, biased motives of the author, and consistency of the data.
internal criticism
The tendency of an assessed individual to continually respond in a particular way to a variety of instruments, such as when a respondent repeatedly answers as she or he believes the researcher desires even when such answers do not reflect the respondent's true feelings. Also used to refer to the tendency of an observer to rate the majority of observees the same regardless of the observees' actual behavior.
response set
Assessment designed to measure cognitive processes.
cognitive test
An instrument that asks an individual to give a quantitative rating to the participant of the attitude scale on a number of bipolar adjectives such as good-bad, friendly-unfriendly, positive-negative.
semantic differential scale
After the fact research.
ex post facto research
Assessment types emphasizing the respondent's performing a process or creating a product. Also called authentic and alternative assessment.
performance assessment
A generalization based on observation.
inductive hypothesis
Refers to when a study is done again; the second study may be a repetition of the original study using different participants, or it may represent an alternative approach to testing the same hypothesis.
In research, this means that the researcher does not know the identities of participants in a study.
Secondhand information, such as a brief study written by someone other than the person who conducted it.
secondary source
The process of using as the sample whoever happens to be available, e.g., volunteers. Also revered to as accidental sampling and haphazard sampling.
convenience sampling
The process of quantifying or scoring respondents' performance on an assessment instrument.
A qualitative method for identifying similarities and differences by comparing new evidence to prior evidence.
constant comparison
A group of several related statements that vary by differing degrees that research participants select from to indicate their agreement or lack of agreement.
measurement scale
A summary of a study, which appears at the beginning of the report and describes the most important aspects of the study, including major results and conclusions.
In educational research, a test or other tool used to collect data.
The formal, systematic application of the scientific and disciplined inquiry approach to the study of educational problems.
educational research
States that there is no relationship (or difference) between variables and that any relationship found will be a chance relationship, the result of sampling error, not a true one.
null hypothesis
A quantitative measure of the degree of correspondence between two or more variables.
The formal, systematic application of the scientific and disciplined inquiry approach to the study of problems.
A type of achievement test yielding multiple scores for each area of achievement measured that facilitate identification of specific areas of deficiency.
diagnostic test
Comparing an individual's performance on an assessment to the performance of others.
norm referenced
Distortion of research data that renders the data suspect or invalid. May occur due to characteristics of the researcher, the respondent, or the research design itself.
The collection of extensive narrative data on many variables over an extended period of time, in a naturalistic setting, to gain insights not possible using other types of research.
qualitative research
The analysis of data to determine their authenticity.
external criticism
A topic-specific term used in computer and library searches to located information related to the research problem being investigated.
Any important fact presumed to be true but not actually verified; should be described in the procedures section of a research plan or report.
The consistency of two (or more) independent scorers, raters, or observers.
interjudge reliability
A decimal number between .00 and +/- 1.00 that indicates the degree to which two variables are related.
correlation coefficient
A tentative, abstract statement of supposed relationship, testable by formulating and testing one or more hypotheses.
Theory based on data collected in real-world settings that reflect what naturally occurred over an extended period of time.
grounded theory
An instrument that asks individuals to respond to a series of statements by indicating whether they strongly agree (SA), agree (A), are undecided (U), disagree (D), or strongly disagree (SD) with each statement.
Likert scale
Reasoning based on developing specific predictions from general principles, observations, or experiences.
deductive reasoning
A statement of the expected relationship (or difference) between two variables.
research hypothesis
A tentative, reasonable, testable explanation for the occurrence of certain behaviors, phenomena, or events.
One that defines concepts in terms of processes, or operations.
operational definition
Pieces of information (singular, datum).
An aspect of a study that the researcher knows may negatively affect the results or generalizability of the results, but over which the researcher has no control.
A hypothesis derived from theory that provides evidence that supports, expands, or contradicts the theory.
deductive hypothesis
The collection of numerical data to explain, predict, and/or control phenomena of interest.
quantitative research
The general formula for estimating internal consistency based on a determination of how all items on a test relate to all other items and to the total test. Kuder-Richardson (KR-20) is a special case of this general formula. Also referred to as coefficient alpha.
Cronbach's alpha
Journal in which articles are reviewed by a panel of experts in the field and are thus seen as more "scholarly" and "trustworthy."
referred journal
The degree to which a test measures an intended hypothetical construct, or nonobservable trait, that explains behavior.
construct validity
The degree to which test items represent measurement in the intended content area.
item validity
The systematic collection and evaluation of data related to past occurrences in order to describe causes, effects, or trends of those events that may help to explain present events and anticipate future events.
historical research
Firsthand information such as the testimony of an eyewitness, an original document, a relic, or a description of a study written by the person who conducted it.
primary source
A research question, issue, or problem that can be examined or answered by collecting and analyzing data.
A concept that can assume any one of a range of values (e.g., intelligence, height, aptitude).
An attempt to collect data from members of a population to determine the current status of that population with respect to one or more variables.
The lowest level of measurement that classifies persons or objects into two or more categories; a person can only be in one category, and members of a category have a common set of characteristics.
nominal variable
The process of selecting a sample using a technique that does not permit the researcher to specify the probability, or chance, that each member of a population has of being selected for the sample.
nonprobability sampling
A measurement scale that classifies and ranks participants. It is based on predetermined equal intervals, but does not have a true zero point.
interval variable
World Wide Web tool that allows users to search large portions of the Internet for specific information.
search engine