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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are norms?
Norms are unwritten rules that state what a person should and should not do. They are the expectations of an organizational culture.
What is open education?
Open education is education without walls. Students learn what they want at their own pace.
What are the steps to implement a decision?
Define TQM
TQM is total quality management. It was a managment method used in Japan and is participatory, shared and site-based. It focuses on:
group purpose
cooperative philosophy
training for all
and effective leadership
What is site-based management?
Site-based management is participatory and shared management which provides autonomy for the prinicipal who involves the staff.
What is shared decision making?
Shared decision making is when the administrator relies less on control and more on bonding staff by developing norms and a shared vision.
What are four methods of decision making?
1. normative prescriptive (MBO)
2. shared (site-based)(TQM)
3. strategic
4. situational
Define decision making
Decision making is defined as a process influenced by information and values where a perceived problem is defined, possible solutions are considered and a choice is made that is implemented and evaluated.
What are the steps of the decision-making process?
1. define the situation
2. identify the alternatives
3. assess the alternatives
4. select the best alternative
5. secure acceptance of the decision
6. implement the decision
7. evaluate the decision
If encountering resistance, an administrator can...
1. modify the original decision
2. abandon the original decision
3. enforce the decision against the will of others
4. try to change attitudes
What are situational constraints for decision making?
1. time
2. tension
3. ambiguity
4. autonomy
5. expectations
6. information
7. resources
What is a quality circle?
A quality circle is a small group of employees who perform a common task and meet regularly to analyze problems.
What is the Delphi Technique?
The Delphi Technique is a process for generating ideas to help in decision making which involves a large number of people. It involves:
1. defining the problem
2. identifying whose opinions are valuable
3. asking for responses
4. summarizing the responses
What is NGT?
NGT is nominal group technique. It is a participatory way to involve people in decisions through presentation of ideas.
What is looping?
Looping is when a teacher or administrator stays with a single group of students for several years.
What is professional/staff development?
Professional/staff development is a process to improve skills, introduce new skills, and improve attitude and performance of everyone in the building.
Define summative evaluation.
Summative evaluation tries to determine whether an innovation meets the needs of the school and whether the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.
Define formative evaluation.
Formative evaluation is diagnostic since it is searching for areas of the plan or innovation that need improvement. The assessment is of strengths and weaknesses before a decision is reached.
What is Public Law 94-142?
Public Law 94-142, the Education for all Handicapped Children Act of 1975, is now known as IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act). It ensures that children with disabilities have a free, appropriate public education, IEP, special ed services, due process, and least restrictive environment.
What is MBO?
MBO is management by objective. It is a tool for normative, prescriptive decision making.
Explain the multiple intelligence theory.
Gardner's multiple intelligence theory says that there are 8 types of intelligences. Each person has some of each type of intelligence to varying degrees. Each area is as important as the others.
What is Honig v. Doe?
Honig v. Doe was a 1989 Supreme Court decision that students with disabilities cannot be unilaterally suspended or expelled without provision for due process.
What is FERPA?
FERPA is the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act. It restricts access to student records and provides for removal of inaccuracies. It protects the privacy of educational records. Parents and students over 18 can inspect and review.
What is FAPE?
FAPE is Free and Appropriate Education.
What are two theories of intelligence useful to educators?
Two theories of intelligence useful to educators are:
1. Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
2. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Theory
What did Fullan say about public education and when?
In 1993, Fullan stated that the main problem in public education is the presence of too many innovations.
What are some functions of human resource management?
Some functions of human resource management are:
1. recruiting
2. hiring
3. benefits
4. certification
5. negotiations
6. employee assistance
7. staff development
Explain the triarchic theory of intelligence.
Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence maintains that intelligence can be altered by instruction. There are three parts...
1. synthetic
2. analytic
3. practical
*all of which are related to creativity
What is a states rights resister?
A states rights resistor is one who believes that the only effective change comes from the local level.
What is a cost justifier resister?
A cost justifier resister believes that before implementing a change, all costs must be justified.
What is a positive resister?
A positive resister agrees with all of the changes but never does anything about them.
What is a unique resister?
A unique resister believes that the changes are ok for others but not for them or their group.
What is an incremental change resister?
An incremental change resister believes that a new plan must have everything that the old plan had in order to be implemented.
What is a "let me be last" resister?
A "let me be last" resister wants everyone else to implement the change first in hopes that the new ideas will die out.
What are 7 types of resisters to change?
The 7 types of resisters to change are:
1. positive
2. unique
3. states rights
4. study more
5. let me be last
6. incremental change
7. cost justifier
List 5 reasons that innovations fail.
Innovations fail because of:
1. too vague or ambitious plans
2. minimal planning
3. insufficient resources
4. failure to anticipate
5. failure to address developments
Discuss IEP's.
An IEP is an individualized educational plan. It outlines the pupil services that a student will receive. An IEP is guaranteed to all children with disabilities by the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975.
Define constructivism.
Constructivism is based on the belief that students learn best from exploration and active learning. Individuals construct rather than receive knowledge.
What are 3 leadership styles of principals?
Three leadership styles of principals are:
1. responder
2. initiator
3. manager
What are 2 methods of special education?
2 methods of special education are:
1. inclusion
2. pull-out
What is inclusion?
Inclusion is a method of special education in which the special ed student is placed in a regular ed classroom. The special ed teacher co-teaches with the area teacher. Otherwise the special ed teacher needs area certification.
List the post-implementation problems.
Post-implementation problems are:
1. Burnout
2. Coping with problems
3. Loss of resources
4. Negative media
Explain sanctions.
Sanctions are a means of gaining compliance to expectations. They may be positive or negative, formal or informal.
Define culture.
Culture is the social or normative glue that holds an organization together.
What is rational, normative prescriptive decision making?
In rational, normative prescriptive decision making an administrator logically addresses a problem through a series of sequential steps ending in an effective decision.
What is "return to the basics"?
Return to the basics was a movement popular in the '50's and '60's promoting a return to reading, writing, and arithmetic.
The most important thing principals do is...
The most important thing principals do is create and manage culture. It is hard to create a successful school without a good principal.
What is LRE?
LRE is least restrictive environment. A child with disabilities receives a FAPE designed to meet their needs while being with peers without disabilities to the max possible extent.
What is due process?
Due process is the judicial process to protect the legal rights of an individual.