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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
SCHEMA/SCHEMATA
Previously acquired knowledge structures accessed in the comprehension process.
BOTTON-UP PROCESSING
Interpreting a message principally by paying attention to the specific details (including the decoding of individual words or other linguistic cues) and the listener or reader attempts to instantiate the best fitting lower-level schema for the incoming data. This type of processing is data-driven.
IMMERSION
The target language is used for teaching regular school subjects.
TASK-BASED INSTRUCTION
Is an approach to language teaching that comprises materials for which the target language is used as a means to an end.
TASK
In language teaching an activity or action which is carried out as the result of processing or understanding language (i.e., as a response).

The use of a variety of different tasks in language teaching is said to make language teaching more communicative (Communicative Approach),since it provides a purpose for a
classroom activity which goes beyond the practice of language for its own sake.
ERROR CORRECTION STRATEGIES
Explicit correction – involves giving the correct form to learners and telling them what they said was incorrect.
Recasts – teacher rephrased students’ utterances to eliminate errors.
Clarification requests – teachers indicate they didn’t understand what the student said by asking, “Pardon”, “¿Cómo?”, etc.
Metalinguistic feedback – teacher comments on or asks questions about the forms of the students’ utterance without explicitly correcting them.
Repetition – repeating the incorrect utterance often with rising intonation or emphasis so that students know which part was in need of repair.
SOURCES OF ERROR IN INTERLANGUAGE (SELINKER, 1974)
Language transfer – interference from the mother tongue
Transfer-of-training – errors due to the nature of the language-learning materials and approaches themselves.
Strategies of second language learning – errors due to the learner’s own approach to the material to be learned.
Strategies of second language communication – errors due to the way in which learners attempt to communicate with native speakers in natural language situations.
Overgeneralization of target language rules – errors due to the way in which the learner restructures and reorganizes linguistic material.
THE INTERPERSONAL MODE
Is characterized by active negotiation of meaning among individuals. It is direct oral communication (i.e. fact to face or by telephone) between individuals who are in personal contact. Adjustments and clarifications can be made accordingly.
THE INTERPRETIVE MODE
Is focused on the appropriate cultural interpretation of meanings that occur in written and spoken form where there is no recourse to the active negotiation of meaning with the writer or the speaker. It is receptive communication of oral or written messages. communication is mediated through print and non-print materials (i.e., listening, reading, recorded materials where the creator is absent).
THE PRESENTATIONAL MODE
Refers to the creation of messages in a manner that facilitates interpretation by members of the other culture where no direct opportunity for the active negotiation of meaning between members of the two cultures exists. Productive communication using oral or written language. Spoken or written language (an audience) with whom there is no immediate personal contact. Primarily productive abilities: speaking, writing, showing.
COMMUNICATION
Communication in languages other than English is the goal whether the communication takes place face-to-face, in writing, or across centuries through the reading of literature
CULTURES
Through the study of other languages, students gain a knowledge and understanding of the cultures that use that language. Mastering the language involves mastering the cultural contexts in which the language occurs.
CONNECTIONS
Providing bridges to additional bodies of knowledge that are unavailable to monolingual English speakers.
COMPARISONS
Studying the similarities and contrasts with the language studied assist students in developing greater insight into their own language and culture and the realization that multiple ways of viewing the world exist.
COMMUNITIES
Allows participation in the multilingual communities at home and around the world in a variety of contexts and in culturally appropriate ways.
THEORY
Statement or group of statements about how some part of world works- frequently explaining relations among phenomena-Vogt
BEHAVIORISM
A stance that maintains that the language learner's experience is barely responsible for language learning and is more important than any specific innate capacity (SKinner)
(Opposite of rationalism)
RATIONALISM
a stance that maintains that humans have innate capacity for the development of language, and that humans are programmed to develop their linguistic systems in certain ways- born with ability
(opposite of behaviorism)
UNIVERSAL GRAMMER
part of rationalism
language is a species specific, geneticallydetermined capacity and is giverned by biologically mechanism
LAD
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE
includes 1) the ability to organize language into a system of structures; 2) the ability to distinguish speech sounds from other sounds 3)the knowledge of what was possible and whar was not possible in any linguistic system; 4) the ability to construct the simpliest possible system based on linguistic data to which one was exposed
KRASHEN'S MONITOR THEORY
THere is a distinction between aqcuistion learning. There is a natural order in which grammatical structures follow a predictable order when that acquistion is natural and not learned.
The conscious knowledge of rules functions as a monitor when there is sufficent time, the focus is on form, and the language when they are exposed to comprehensible input. Language that contains structures that are a little beyond their current level of cometence (i+1)
COGNITIVE THEORY
a stance that maintains that language acquisition is influenced by both external and internal factors. Them emphasis is on knowing rather than responding and mental structure/organization. Learning is constructed rather than simply receiving stimuli from the environment
CONNECTIONISM
Assumes there is not an innate endowment or mechanism specific to language learning. Learning is achieved by strengthening of connection between and among simple processing units in complex neural networks cognitive processing is parallel and distributed through out the network rather than in a sequential or serial fashion. There is not rules, but connectionist system exhibit rule-like behavior. The strength of connections is determined by the frequency of patterns in the output
CULTURALLY RELEVANT PEDEGOGY
A pedegogy in which students must exerience success; students must develop or maintain cultural competence; and students must develop a critical consciousness through which they challenge the staus quo of current social order
Cultural Responsive Teaching
Pedagogy and practices that reflect an attitude that respects cultural difference; procedures for getting to know the cultural resources of the students, ability to translate this knowledge into effective instruction; and skills in interactive decision making
TEST
evaluates the performance if an individual on a specified criteria at one point in time
Assessment
Evaluates the performance of an individual or individuals over a period of time. For example. evaluating students progress in a foreign language over the course of the entire year, semester, or quarter versus utilizing one test on which to base a students grade over the year
Reliability
the consistency in which the same results are produced by repeating the test, experiment, study a number of times
Validity
The test/experiment/procedure evaluates what it claims to evaluate/ For example, an evaluation of a student's speaking ability would have student speak
Content Validity
relationship between the test objectives and the specific test items that address stated objectives
Criterions-related validity
determines how closely the test taker's preformance on specific sets of objectives on a given assessment instrument corresponds to their preformance on another instrument, on criterion, which is thought to measure the same or similiar activity
Concurrent Validity
When one instrument is correlated w/ another criterion instrument at the same time, it is being validated
Predictive Ability
the correlation of 2 instrument takes place at some future time (example GRE results)
Construct Validity
degree to which scores on an assessment instrument allow inferences about under lying traits. That is to say, it examines whether the instrument is a true reflection of the theory of the trait being measured
Formative Assessment
continuous collection, analysis, reporting of data, about student performance in order to guide instruction and learning
Summative Assessment
The collection, analysis, and reporting of information at the end of a grading period, semester, academic year or of the specified time frame
Grammar-translation Method
'mental discipline'
primary purpose was to enable students to access and appreciate great lit. while helping to understand native language through extensive analysis of grammar of target language translation
Direct Method
rationalist perspective on language learning
students understand language by listening to it in large quantities- learning by speaking, especially if the speech associated simultaneously w/ appropriate reaction
AUdiolingual Method
empirical
scientific approach to language teaching- language learning was brought about in terms of conditioning
(drill and kill)
Cognitive Anti-method
based on principles of 1st language acquisition was characterized by attempting to simulate 'natural' learning processes in the classroom
Cognitive-Code Method
meaningful learning was essential to language acquisition, and conscious knowledge of grammar was important
Competence
an individual's explicit/implicit knowledge of language system
Preformance
actual production/comprehension of language in specific instances of language use
Communicative Competence
4 elements
1)grammatical competence
2)sociolinguistic competence
3)discourse competence
4)strategic competence
5 C's
Communication
Culture
Connection
Comparisons
Communities
Strategic Competence
verbal and nonverbal communication, strategies to compensate for gaps in the language user's knowledge
Global Task/ Functions
Real world tasks that the speaker can do in the language
context
refers to curcumstances or settings in which a person uses language
Proficiency
a high level of skill and well developed knowledge of a a language
Content
topics or themes of conversation
Accuracy
refers to the accptabilty, quality and precision of the message conveyed
test typed
the structure of the discourse, eg quality and the organizational apsects of speech
ACTFL proficieny Guildelines
define and measure language ability in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. levels of proficiency can be distinguished by considering four interrelated assessment criteria- global task/functions, context/content, accuracy and text type
ADVANCED ORGANIZER
Refers to an array of pedagogical aids, including pictures, titles, topic summaries, preposed questions that activate relevant background knowledge to facilitate the learning and retention of new material.
CONTENT STANDARDS
(For foreign language) – what students should know and be able to do as a result of their study of the foreign language.
PERFORMANCE STANDARD
The students’ ability to demonstrate an understanding of what they know by what they can do.
PROFICIENCY-BASED CURRICULUM
Prepare learners to use language to communicate effectively in a variety of contexts and settings through classroom experiences that simulate real-world language tasks and uses.
BLOOM’S TAXONOMY
A taxonomy of objectives for the cognitive domain developed by B.S. Bloom. It consists of 6 levels ranging from knowledge (which focuses on reproduction of facts) to evaluation(which represents higher level thinking).
ACTFL PROFICIENCY GUIDELINES

Global tasks/functions
refers to real-world tasks that the speaker can do in the language.
ACTFL PROFICIENCY GUIDELINES

Context
refers to circumstances or settings in which a person uses language
ACTFL PROFICIENCY GUIDELINES

Content
refers to topics or themes of conversation
ACTFL PROFICIENCY GUIDELINES

Accuracy
refers to the acceptability, quality and precision of the message conveyed
ACTFL PROFICIENCY GUIDELINES

Text type
refers to the structure of the discourse, i.e. the quantity and the organizational aspects of speech
PURPOSES AND STAGES OF THE LISTENING PROCESS
1. Identification – recognition or discrimination of aspects of the message rather than attention to the overall message content (i.e., word categories, phonemic distinctions.).
2. Orientation – identification of important facts about the text, such as the participants, the situation, the general topic, the tone, the text type, etc.
3. Main idea comprehension – understanding of the higher-order ideas in the listening passage.
4. Detail comprehension – understanding of more specific information.
5. Full comprehension – understanding of both the main ideas and supportive detail.
6. Replication – ability to reproduce the message in either the same modality (through repetition of the content) or in a different modality (such as transcription or dictation).
HOLISTIC SCORING
Is a way to assess the overall proficiency level of a given written sample. One or more readers assign a single grade (or rating) to a text based on an overall impression.
ANALYTICAL SCORING
Involves the separation of the various features of a composition into components for scoring purposes. More precise diagnostic feedback can be provided to the student by this method of scoring.
PRIMARY TRAIT SCORING
Scores are assigned holistically based on a certain feature of the writing that is being emphasized, i.e. the organization or structure of the piece, the vocabulary or tone. The teacher must decide to what extent the writing sample exhibits certain characteristics (primary traits) that are essential to accomplishing a given writing purpose.
Listener function
Relates to what the learner attempts to process from the message.
Listening response
Corresponds to the way in which the listener shows comprehension of the message.
Geddes & White (1978) Authentic discourse

Unmodified authentic discourse
Refers to language that occurred originally as a genuine act of communication
Geddes & White (1978) Authentic discourse

Simulated authentic discourse
Refers to language produced for pedagogical purposes but which exhibits features that have a high probability of occurrence in genuine acts of communication
Intensive reading
Students need to understand linguistic as well as semantic detail and pay attention to the text. This is most often for finding information.
Extensive reading
Students do not need to comprehend all the details of a text. This type of reading is often for pleasure.
Skimming
Quickly looking over the text to get the gist.
Scanning
Quickly searching for some particular piece of information in the text
Techniques for teaching reading skills

Preteaching/preparation stage
helps develop skills in anticipation and prediction for the reading of graphic material
Techniques for teaching reading skills

Skimming/scanning stages
two distinct processes that involve getting the gist of a reading (skimming) and locating specific information (scanning)
Techniques for teaching reading skills

Decoding/intensive reading stage
important when students are learning to read. Decoding involves guessing from context the meaning of unknown words or phrases. The extent of decoding is dependent upon the purpose for reading a text.
Techniques for teaching reading skills

Comprehension stage
comprehension checks of various sorts are made to determine if students have achieved their reading purpose(s)
Techniques for teaching reading skills

Transferable/integrating skills
the final stage of teaching
reading, these exercises should be used to help students go beyond the confines of the specific passage to enhance reading skills and effective reading strategies per se. Included in these exercises are those that encourage contextual guessing, selective reading for main ideas, appropriate dictionary usage, and effective rereading strategies to confirm hypotheses.
Differences between spoken and written discourse
Spoken Written
1. spontaneous free speech 1. literary texts
2. deliberate free speech 2. specialized or
technical texts
3. oral presentation of a 3. correspondence
written text
4. oral presentation of a fixed 4. journalistic literature
script
5. informational texts
6. miscellaneous realia
APPLIED RESEARCH
Its goal is to determine which methods, techniques or procedures are more efficient, which ones work, and which ones do not.
THEORETICAL RESEARCH
Its goal is the development of theory. Theoretical hypotheses can be supported by empirical data, but cannot be proven.
A THEORY
A statement or group of statements about how some part of the world works – frequently explaining relations among phenomena.
DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE
Explicit and conscious knowledge that can be articulated by the learner. It involves knowing that (e.g., definitions of words, rules, facts).
PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE
Involves knowing how (e.g., how to produce language as one performs linguistically). Can be more or less implicit or explicit, conscious or unconscious, or relatively controlled or relatively automatic in nature.
TOP-DOWN PROCESSING
The listener/reader begins with a more general higher-order schema, makes predictions based on background knowledge, and then searches the input for information to fit into the “slots”. This type of processing is conceptually driven.
CONTENT-BASED FOREIGN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION
Instruction that uses learning objectives and activities drawn from the school curriculum as a vehicle for teaching foreign language skills.
INTERLANGUAGE (OR LANGUAGE-LEARNER LANGUAGE)
Language that students use when learning a foreign language. The language produced differs from both child and adult native language use.
VARIABILITY
An intermediate system located somewhere between the learner’s native language and the target language, but governed by its own unique and coherent internalized rule. According to Ellis (1985) variability can be systematic or non-systematic.
Under Systematic Variability

Individual variability
due to learner characteristics
Under Systematic Variability

Contextual variability
due to either the linguistic context or the situational context in which the language is being used
Under Non-systematic Variability

Free variability
where competing forms or rules operate in free variation with one another
Under Non-systematic Variability

Performance variability
due to the learner’s emotional or physical condition, which can provoke slips or hesitations
FOSSILIZATION
The permanent retention of non-native interlanguage forms in the learners’ developing linguistic system.
FEEDBACK
Response to a learner’s language can be positive or negative in nature.
OVERGENERALIZATION
Results when a previously available strategy or rule is used in new situations where that rule does not apply.
TASK-BASED INSTRUCTION
Is an approach to language teaching that comprises materials for which the target language is used as a means to an end.