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10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
• The sounds of a language
• English has 45 phonemes
• English is not a tonal language
• Rare phonemes:
▫ Th think and that
▫ Xths sixths
Phonemes of English
• Vowels
• Consonants (voiced and unvoiced)
• Semi-vowels (w and y)
• No clicks, no guttural sounds
• The rules of a language.
(part 1/2)
• 1. Syntax
▫ Order in which sentences are delivered (n/v,
▫ The dog bit John.
▫ John bit the dog.
Syntax continued . . .
• Open and closed classes of words:
• Open: nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives
• Closed: prepositions, conjunctions
• The rules of a language.
(part 1/2)
• The smallest meaning-bearing unit of language
• Bound: must be attached to another word
• Unbound: can stand alone with meaning
Bound morphemes:
• -s
• -es
• -ing
• pre-
• un-
• dis-
• re-
• A syllable is not necessarily a morpheme:
▫ dislike & distance
• Word meaning (vocabulary)
▫ Develops over time
▫ Adults: 100,000 word vocabularies
▫ Kindergarten: 5000 word vocabularies
▫ Grade 1: 11,000 word vocabularies
▫ Grade 5: 38,000 word vocabularies
Semantics continued . . .
• I don’t wear perfume .
• The flowers perfume the air.
• The convict did not escape.
• Will the jury convict the accused?
• He has a collection of old records .
• She will record the conversation.
• The subject was not willing to talk.
• I won’t subject you to my vacation pictures.
• Ability to use language effectively
pragmatics cont..
• Halliday’s functions of language:
▫ 1. instrumental
▫ 2. regulatory
▫ 3. representational
▫ 4. interactional
▫ 5. personal
▫ 6. heuristic
▫ 7. imaginative
• Vocal intonations of speech
▫ 1. Stress
▫ 2. Pitch
▫ 3. juncture
H4- Personal:
Language used to express the personal preferences and identity of the speaker. Sometimes referred to as the ‘Here I am!’ function – announcing oneself to the world.
H5 - Representational: Language used to exchange information. Concerned with relaying or requesting information.
H6- Heuristic:
Language used to learn and explore the environment. Child uses language to learn; this may be questions and answers, or the kind of running commentary that frequently accompanies children’s play.
Language used to fulfil a need on the part of the speaker. Directly concerned with obtaining food, drink and comfort.
H2- Regulatory:
Language used to influence the behaviour of others. Concerned with persuading / commanding / requesting other people to do things you want.
H3- Interactional: Language used to develop social relationships and ease the process of interaction. Concerned with the phatic dimension of talk.

H7- - Imaginative: Language used to explore the imagination. May also accompany play as children create imaginary worlds, or may arise from storytelling.