• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/117

Click to flip

117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 4 modes of learning?
Verbal Written Mode
Verbal Spoken Mode
Visual Mode
Kinesthetic Mode
What are the 4 styles of learning?
Individuals who prefer...
Integrating learning experiences with self
Logic, facts, details, and consequential patterns of thought
Learning by doing and by thinking things through
Exploring, acting upon and manipulating ideas in certain ways
What are the 4 phases of the learning cycle?
What questions correspond with each phase?
Motivation phase: Why am I learning this?
Understanding phase: What's it all about?
Application phase: How do I use it?
Adaptation phase: In what other ways might I use it?
What are the four factors of creative thinking?
Fluency
Flexibility
Originality
Elaboration
Define fluency with regard to creative thinking
generating a lot of responses in a short period of time (brainstorming)
Define flexibility with regard to creative thinking
looking at something from different points of view; generating different categories of thought
Define originality with regard to creative thinking
a unique idea very few people may have
Define elaboration with regard to creative thinking
embellishing something, adding details to something
What is morphological synthesis?
A way of developing a lot of ideas from which to choose
Define psychosocial with regard to Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
describing the relation of the individual's emotional needs to the social environment
Define developmental crisis with regard to Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
a specific concept whose resolution prepares the way for the next stage
Define autonomy with regard to Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
independence
Define initiative with regard to Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
willingness to begin new activities and explore new directions
Define identity with regard to Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
the complex answer to the question, "Who am I?"
Define identity achievement with regard to Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
strong sense of commitment to life choices and free consideration of alternatives
Define identity foreclosure with regard to Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
Acceptance of parental life choices without consideration of options
Define identity diffusion with regard to Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
uncenteredness; confusion about who you are and what you want
Define moratorium with regard to Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
identity crisis; suspension of choices because of struggle
Define self-concept with regard to Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
our perceptions about ourselves
Define self-esteem with regard to Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
the value each of us places on our own characteristics, abilities, and behaviors
List the 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development in order
Trust v. Mistrust
Autonomy v. Shame/Doubt
Initiative v. Guilt
Industry v. Inferiority
Identity v. Role Confusion
Intimacy v. Isolation
Generativity v. Stagnation
Ego integrity v. Despair
Define the following for Trust v. Mistrust (Stage 1):
Aprox Age:
Description:
Important Event:
Aprox Age: Birth to 12-18 Months
Description: infant must form a first loving, trusting relationship with the caregiver or develop a sense of mistrust
Important Event: feeding
Define the following for Autonomy v. Shame/Doubt (Stage 2):
Aprox Age:
Description:
Important Event:
Aprox Age: 18 months- 3 years
Description: child's energies are directed toward the development of physical skills. The child learns control but may develop shame if not handled well.
Important event: toilet training
Define the following for Initiative v. Guilt (Stage 3):
Aprox Age:
Description:
Important Event:
Aprox age: 3-6 yrs
Description: the child continues to become more assertive and to take more initiative but may be too forceful, which can lead to guilt feelings
Important event: independence
Define the following for Industry v. Inferiority (Stage 4):
Aprox Age:
Description:
Important Event:
Aprox Age: 6-12 years
Description: the child must deal with demands to learn new skills or risk a sense of inferiority, failure, and incompetence
Important event: School
Define the following for Identity v. Role Confusion (Stage 5):
Aprox Age:
Description:
Important Event:
Aprox Age: adolescence
Description: the teenager must achieve identity in occupation, gender roles, politics, and religion
Important event: peer relationships
Define the following for Intimacy v. Isolation (Stage 6):
Aprox Age:
Description:
Important Event:
Aprox Age: Young adults
Description: the young adult must develop intimate relationships or suffer feelings of isolation
Important event: love relationships
Define the following for Generativity v. Stagnation (Stage 7):
Aprox Age:
Description:
Important Event:
Aprox Age: middle adulthood
Description: each adult must find some way to satisfy and support the next generation
Important event: parenting or mentoring
Define the following for Ego integrity v. Despair (Stage 8):
Aprox Age:
Description:
Important Event:
Aprox age: late adulthood
Description: the culmination is a sense of acceptance of oneself and sense of fulfillment
Important event: reflection on and the acceptance of one's life
What are the 3 levels of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning?
Preconventional Moral Reasoning
Conventional Moral Reasoning
Postconventional Moral Reasoning
How many stages does each level of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning have?
Each level has 2 stages
What ages is typical for preconventional moral reasoning?
Conventional?
Post conventional?
Children up to age 9
9-20
20+ (but most people never reach this level)
Why is preconventional moral reasoning called PREconventional?
Young children do not really understand the conventions or rules of society. Judgment is based on personal needs and others' rules.
Why is conventional moral reasoning called conventional?
most of this age group conform to the conventions of society b/c they are rules of society. Judgment is based on others' approval, family expectations, traditional values, the laws of society and loyalty to country
Why is postconventional moral reasoning called POSTconventional?
the moral principles that underlie the conventions are understood
List the 6 Stages involved in the 3 Levels of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning
Punishment-Obedience Orientation
Personal Reward Orientation
Good Boy-Nice Girl Orientation
Law and Order Orientation
Social Contract Orientation
Universal Ethical Principle Orientation
Describe the punishment-obedience orientation (Stage 1) of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning
Basically, rules are obeyed in order to avoid punishment. Those in authority have superior power and should be obeyed. Avoid punishment by staying out of trouble.
Describe the personal reward orientation (Stage 2) of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning
Personal needs determine right and wrong. An action is judged to be right if it is instrumental in satisfying one's own needs or involves an even exchange. Obeying rules should bring some sort of benefit in turn.
Describe the Good Boy-Nice Girl orientation (Stage 3) of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning
Good means "nice." It is determined by what pleases, aids, and is approved by others.
Describe the Law and Order orientation (Stage 4) of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning
Laws are absolute. Authority must be respected and the social order maintained.
Describe the Social Contract orientation (Stage 5) of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning
rules needed to maintain the social order should not be based on blind obedience to authority but on mutual agreement. At the same time, the rights of the individual should be protected.
Describe the Universal Ethical Principle orientation (Stage 6) of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning
Moral decisions should be made in terms of self-chosen ethical principles. Once principles are chosen, they should be applied in consistent ways. Kohlberg said this stage is a theoretical ideal that is rarely encountered in real life.
What are the 4 types of Social Cognitive Modeling?
Direct Modeling
Symbolic Modeling
Synthesized Modeling
Cognitive Modeling
Describe direct modeling
Give an example
Attempting to imitate the model's behavior
Writing letters the same way as the teacher
Describe symbolic modeling
Give an example
Imitating behaviors displayed by characters in a book, play, a movie, or T.V.
Dressing up like characters from GLEE
Describe synthesized modeling
Give an example
developing behaviors by combining portions of observed acts
Using a chair to open a kitchen cabinet after seeing brother use chair and mother open cabinet
Describe cognitive modeling
Give an example
Talking and demonstrating how things work
A driver's ed teacher describing the steps before beginning to drive
What are the four steps involved in Albert Bandura's modeling process?
Attention
Retention
Reproduction
Motivation
Describe attention with regard to Albert Bandura's modeling process
You have to be paying attention in order to learn something. Distractions place limitations on learning
Describe retention with regard to Albert Bandura's modeling process
You must be able to retain or remember what you paid attention to. Imagery and language is important here.
Describe reproduction with regard to Albert Bandura's modeling process
One has to translate the images or descriptions into actual behavior. You must have the abilities to do this
Describe motivation with regard to Albert Bandura's modeling process
There is past reinforcement, promised reinforcements (incentives) and vicarious reinforcement (seeing the model being reinforced) that do not cause learning but cause us to demonstrate what we learned

There are also negative motivations such as past punishment, promised punishment, and vicarious punishment, which cause us not to imitate someone
Describe the 3 steps of self regulation, a component of Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory
1. Self-observation: we look at ourselves, our behavior, and keep track of it
2. Judgment: We compare what we see with a standard, such as rules, guidelines, ethics, etc.
3. Self-response: If you do well in comparison with your standard, you reward yourself. If you do poorly, you punish yourself
Define behaviorism.
How did Albert Bandura alter this idea?
Behaviorism is a theory of personality that says that one's environment causes one's behavior.

Bandura altered this by coming up with reciprocal determinism: he said that the environment and a person's behavior cause each other.
Albert Bandura saw personality as an interaction among what three things?
The environment, behavior, and the person's psychological processes. The psychological processes consist of the ability to entertain images in our minds and language.
What is self-efficacy?
Having the confidence to try something new. This has an impact on social learning.
What are Piaget's 4 Stages of Cognitive Development? Include the years that correlate with each stage.
Sensorimotor Stage (0-2)
Preoperational Stage (2- 6/7)
Concrete Operational Stage (6/7-11/12)
Formal Operational Stage (11/12+++)
What important cognitive events occur in the sensorimotor stage in Piaget's 4 Stages of Cognitive Development?
Object permanence
Developing an understanding of cause and effect
What important cognitive events and inabilities to perform certain cognitive abilities occur at the preoperational stage in Piaget's 4 Stages of Cognitive Development?
Symbolic thinking (thinking about something without seeing it)
Preoperational egocentrism (seeing things from own point of view)
Lack of conservation (believe an amount changes when a substance is reshaped)
Irreversibility (cannot recognize that certain things can be undone)
Inability to reason about transformations (difficulty thinking about change processes such as caterpillar into butterfly)
Single classification (can classify objects one way at a time)
Transductive reasoning (develop cause-effect relationship b/c of proximity of time and space)
What important cognitive events occur in the concrete operational stage in Piaget's 4 Stages of Cognitive Development?
Differentiation of one's own perspective from the perspective of others
Conservation
Reversibility
Ability to reason about transformations
Multiple classification
Deductive reasoning (draw logical inferences from 2+ pieces of info)
What important cognitive events occur in the formal operational stage in Piaget's 4 Stages of Cognitive Development?
Ability to reason about abstract, hypothetical, and contrary-to-fact ideas
Formulation and testing of multiple hypotheses
Separation and control of variables
Proportional reasoning (understands proportions and can use them in math)
What are Piaget's 6 Basic Assumptions about children and their cognitive development?
Children are active and motivated learners
Children construct knowledge from their experiences
The things that children learn and do are schemes.
Children learn through the processes of assimilation and accommodation.
Interaction with one's physical and social environments is essential for cognitive development
The process of equilibration promotes progression toward increasingly more complex levels of thought.
Describe schemes as part of Piaget's 6 Basic Assumptions about children and their cognitive development.
Schemes are organized patterns of thought.
Describe assimilation and accommodation as part of Piaget's 6 Basic Assumptions about children and their cognitive development.
Assimilation is the process of dealing with an object or event in a way consistent with an existing scheme.

Accommodation is the process of dealing with a new event by either modifying an existing scheme or forming a new one.
Describe equilibration as part of Piaget's 6 Basic Assumptions about children and their cognitive development.
Children are sometimes in a state of equilibrium in which they can comfortably explain new events in terms of existing schemes. It doesn't last forever though. Eventually they reach disequilibrium, in which they have to come up with a new scheme to explain the new event or object.
What are the needs that Maslow defined in his hierarchy, starting at the bottom and working to the top?
Which are deficiency needs? Which are growth needs?
Deficiency:
Survival
Safety
Belonging
Self-Esteem

Growth:
Intellectual achievement
Aesthetic appreciation
Self actualization
What percentage of people did Maslow think actually achieve self-actualization?
Less than 1%
According to Maslow, people who achieve self-actualization have what characteristics?
Clear perceptions of reality
Autonomy, independence, and self-acceptance
Problem-centered instead of self-centered
Spontaneity in thought and action (frequency of peak experiences)
Sympathy to the conditions of other people
Maslow said there are two processes necessary for self-actualization. What are they?
They are self-exploration and action. The deeper the self-exploration, the closer one comes to self-actualization.
Explain the connection between Maslow's hierarchy of needs and free and reduced lunches.
Schools provide free and reduced lunches because they know that when children are hungry (not meeting the needs of survival), it will be very hard for them to experience intellectual achievement.
Carl Rogers was what kind of psychologist?
What kind of therapy did he come up with?
He was a humanistic psychologist
He came up with client-centered therapy
Essential to Rogers was what idea?
Explain what it means?
Unconditional positive regard was important to Rogers
It is a belief that someone is worthy and acceptable regardless of their behavior
How does Carl Rogers recommend treating all students?
As developing individuals with potential
According to humanistic psychologists (like Carl Rogers), what two elements of the teaching-learning process are essential to the development of motivation?
A strong student-teacher relationship and a positive classroom climate
What are Vygotsky's Five Basic Assumptions as part of his theory of cognitive development?
Complex mental process begin as social activities; as children develop, they gradually internalize these processes and begin to use them independently
Thought and language initially develop independently of each other; the two become interdependent when children are about 2 years old.
Through both informal conversations and formal schooling, adults convey to children the ways in which their culture interprets the world.
Children can perform more challenging tasks when assisted by more advanced and competent individuals.
Challenging tasks promote maximum cognitive growth.
What are the four contemporary applications of Vygotsky's ideas?
Guided participation
Scaffolding
Apprenticeships
Peer Interactions
What is behavioralism?
the view that behaviors should be explained by observable experiences, not by mental processes
What is learning? What is it not?
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.
Learning is not inherited capacities that are inborn (coughing, sneezing)
What are mental processes?
the thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experiences but that can't be observed by others. Just because they are not observable does not make them less real
What animal did Pavlov work with?
What did he discover?
Dogs
Classical conditioning: type of learning in which an organism learns to connect w/stimuli.
What animal did Skinner work with?
What did Skinner discover?
Rats
Operant conditioning: voluntary response strengthened by reinforcement
What animal did Thorndike work with?
What did he discover?
Cats
Law of effect: behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened and behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened.
What is a reinforcer with regard to B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning?
a reinforcer is a consequence that increases the frequency or duration of a behavior
What is positive reinforcement with regard to B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning?
Give an example
the process of increasing the frequency or duration of a behavior as the result of presenting a reinforcer
An example would be teacher compliments
What is negative reinforcement with regard to B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning?
Give an example
the process of removing or avoiding a stimulus to increase behavior
An example is a high school teacher telling her class that students who turn in sloppy work will have to use their free-choice time to redo it
What is the premack principle with regard to B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning?
Give an example
a more preferred activity can be used as a positive reinforcer for a less preferred activity
An example is Dr. Stanish telling as that if we get a 93% average on our quizzes, we don't have to take the final exam
What are punishers with regard to B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning?
Consequences that weaken behaviors or decrease their frequency
What is presentation punishment with regard to B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning?
Give an example
it occurs when a learner's behavior decreases as a result of being presented with a punisher
An example is reprimanding students for misbehavior in order to decrease the behavior
What is removal punishment with regard to B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning?
Give an example
It is when a behavior is decreased when a stimulus is removed or one's ability to obtain positive reinforcement.
Time out is a good example
What is shaping with regard to B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning?
Give an example
Shaping is the process of reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior.
The teacher praises partial answers and effort at the beginning of the year, but only gives praise later in the year when students give more complete answers and give more effort
What is a continuous reinforcement schedule with regard to B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning?
Every response is reinforced
What is extinction with regard to B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning?
Give an example
It is the elimination of a response as a result of non reinforcement.
Ignoring a student who talks with raising his hand in order to extinguish the behavior
What is a token economy?
A system in which token earned for academic work and positive classroom behavior can be exchanged for some desired award.
What is a variable-ratio schedule with regard to B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning?
A schedule that reinforces students in an unpredictable way based on the number of respones.
What is a fixed-ratio schedule with regard to B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning?
A schedule that reinforces students in a predictable way based on the number of respones.
What are the four major criteria for developing values?
Choosing values
Prizing the values
Affirming the values
Acting upon the values
In what areas are values found? Name a few
Money
religion
politics
friendship
family
work
love and sex
leisure
maturity
Define culture
How a group of people perceives the world, formulates beliefs, evaluates objects, ideas, and experiences, and behaves
Define entering behavior
the characteristics students bring with them to class
What is ethnocentrism?
The belief that one's own culture is superior to other cultures
What is an ethnic group?
A collection of ppl who identify with one another on the basis of one or more of the following characteristics: country from which ancestors came, race, religion, language, values, political interests, economic interests, and behavior patterns
What is multicultural education?
An approach to teaching and learning that fosters an understanding of and mutual respect for the values, beliefs, and practices of different cultural groups
What three beliefs does cultural pluralism rest on?
A society should strive to maintain the diff cultures that reside within it
Each culture within a society should be respected by others
Individuals within a society have the right to participate in all aspects of that society without having to give up their cultural identity
What three factors of social class are used to determine socioeconomic status?
Annual income
Occupation
Education
What is the Pygmalion effect?
When a teacher's expectations lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy
Mastery learning is an approach to teaching and learning that assumes most students can master the curriculum if what 5 conditions are established?
The students...
have sufficient aptitude to learn a particular task
have sufficient ability to understand instruction
are willing to persevere until they attain a certain level of mastery
are allowed whatever time necessary to attain mastery
are provided with quality instruction
What two things did Jerome Bruner emphasize?
Students should understand the structure of a body of knowledge rather than memorizing everything
Students should learn how to discover what they need to know
What is the spiral curriculum?
Who came up with it?
The spiral curriculum is the act of introducing something early in simple form and then again later in more complex form
This is from Jerome Bruner
What is the enactive mode of representation?
Iconic?
Symbolic?
Who came up with these?
Enactive is for toddlers who think of the world in terms of the actions they can perform on it.
Iconic is for children who think in terms of pictures or images.
Symbolic is for late childhood and early adolescents who represent in terms of verbal propositions, math formulas, and symbols.
This is from Jerome Bruner.
Describe the approach of discovery learning or inquiry
You allow students to figure out how to use what they already know in order to go beyond what they already think. You allow them to learn on their own and discover their own principles.
Describe John Dewey's directed living.
Putting an emphasis on workshop type of projects so that learning is combined with concrete activity and practical relevance.
What are the 3 types of cooperative learning strategies?
Jigsaw
Group Investigation (GI)
Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD)
Describe the Jigsaw cooperative learning strategy
Students work in teams. One person from each team is to become an expert on a given topic. That person meets with other students from other teams who will also be experts on that topic. The experts return to their home group and share what they have learned.
What are the four features of cooperative learning?
Students work in teams to master academic materials
Teams are made up of high, avg, and low achievers
Teams consist of racially and sexually mixed group of students
Reward systems are group-oriented rather than individual-oriented
Describe Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) cooperative learning strategy
Teacher presents new info to students each week via verbal presentation or text.
Teams use worksheets and other things to master material and help each other learn it.
Individual members take weekly or biweekly quizzes. The goal is to improve.
Scores are posted weekly in newsletter or bulletin board and teams that have improved or have perfect scores are recognized.
Describe Group Investigation cooperative learning strategy.
What are the 6 steps to it?
Individual students plan topics and how to proceed with investigation.
They investigate and then prepare and present report to the whole class.

Steps:
Topic selection
Cooperative planning
Implementation
Analysis
Synthesis
Evaluation
In what book did Bruner describe his principles of education?
"The Process of Education"