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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Formative evaluation method designed to evaluate performance in the particular curriculum to which students are exposed.
Curriculum-based assessment
Method of evaluating a person that has been applied to a large group so that an individual’s score can be compared to the norm, or average.
Standardized achievement tests
Method of evaluating a student’s critical thinking and problem solving ability in real-life situations in which she may work with or receive help from peers, teachers, parents, or supervisors.
Authentic assessment
Method of teaching academics, especially reading and math that emphasizes drill and practice and immediate feedback; lessons are precisely sequenced, fast-paced, and well-rehearsed by the teacher.
Direct instruction
One’s ability to understand that words are made up of sounds or phonemes.
Phonemic awareness
The study within psycholinguistics of how people use language in social situations
Academic performance markedly lower than would be expected on the bases if a student’s intellectual ability.
IQ-achievement discrepancy
Method of assessing reading in which the teacher has the student read progressively more difficult series of passages or word lists noting the difficulty level of the material read and the types of errors the student makes.
Informal reading inventories
The study of the meanings attached to words.
Ability to understand what one has read.
Reading Comprehension
The study of how individual sounds make up words.
Tendency to repeat behaviors over and over again; often found in people with brain injury as well as ADHD.
Refers to children who exhibit inattention, impulsivity and/or hyperactivity
Executive function; internal language used to regulate one’s behavior
Inner speech
Ability to regulate one’s behavior through working memory, inner speech, control of emotions and arousal levels, and analysis of problems and communication of problem solutions to others.
Executive functions
Acting-in behavior; anxiety, fearfulness, withdrawal, and other indications of an individual’s mood or internal state.
Internalizing behaviors
Disorder characterized by psychotic behavior manifested by loss of contact with reality, distorted thought processes, and abnormal perceptions.
Neurological disorder beginning in childhood in which stereotyped, repetitive motor movements (tics) are accompanied by multiple vocal outbursts that may include grunting noises or socially inappropriate words or
socially inappropriate words or statements (e.g., swearing)
Tourette’s disorder
Acting-out behavior; aggressive or disruptive behavior that is observable as behavior directed toward others.
Externalizing behaviors
Disorder characterized by overt, aggressive, disruptive behavior that is observable as behavior directed toward others.
Conduct disorder
Impairments in the ability to use speech or language to communicate
Communication disorders
Include problems in comprehension and expression
Language disorders
The study within psycholinguistics of word formation; how adding or deleting parts of a whole word changes their meaning.
Involves errors in pronouncing words.
Articulation disorders
Alternative forms of communication that do not use the oral sounds of speech or that augment the use of speech.
Augmentative or alternative communication
Decoding or understanding messages in communication.
Receptive language
Characteristics of pitch, loudness, and/or qualities that are abusive of the larynx.
Voice disorders
Hesitations, repetitions, and other interpretations of normal speech flow that are entirely normal parts of learning to use language.
Fluency disorders
Language disorder that has no known cause
Specific language impairment
Pronouncing words with certain sounds omitted or distorted
Phonological disorders
Oral communication that involves abnormal use of the vocal apparatus, is unintelligible, or is so inferior that it draws attention to itself and causes anxiety, feelings of inadequacy, or inappropriate behavior in the speaker.
Speech disorders
Encoding or sending messages in communication
Expressive language
Children who cannot hear sounds above a certain intensity level
Test whereby tones of various intensities and frequencies are presented to determine a person’s hearing loss.
Pure-tone audiometry
Unit of measurement of the frequency of sound; refers to the highness or lowness of a sound
Hertz (Hz)
People with only a hearing impairment.
Hard of Hearing
Inflammation of the middle ear; most common problem of the middle ear and most visits to the doctor under age six.
Otitis media
Approach for teaching students with hearing impairment that blends oral and manual techniques
Total communication
Units of relative loudness of sounds; zero decibels (dB) designates the point at which people with normal hearing can just detect sound.
T or F: Some researchers have recommended abandoning the notion of an IQ-achievement discrepancy as a criterion for identifying leaning disabilities.
T or F: Children with learning disabilities can occur along with environmental disadvantage, mental retardation, or emotional disturbance; but for children to be considered learning disabled, their learning problems must be primarily the result of their learning disabilities.
T or F: Students with learning disabilities tend to have an external rather than an internal locus of control.
T or F: ADHD is recognized as its own separate category, such as learning disability and mental retardation by the federal government in the U.S.
T or F: Authorities in the early and mid-twentieth century attributed problems of inattention and hyperactivity to neurological problems resulting from brain damage.
T or F: Persons with ADHD frequently have delayed inner speech.
T or F: 25 to 50% of persons with ADHD also exhibit some form of emotional or behavioral disorder.
T or F: Stuttering is the most common speech disorder.
T or F: federal data indicate that about 1 million children receive services primarily for speech or language disorders.
T or F: Helping children to overcome speech and language disorders is the responsibility of speech-language pathologies alone.
• T or F: Children and youth with emotional or behavior disorders typically have numerous friends their peers and adults.
T or F: There is a universally accepted system for classifying emotional or behavioral disorders for special education.
T or F: Although children who are aggressive are a lot of trouble, they are not as seriously disturbed or disabled as children who are shy, anxious, or neurotic.
T or F: Incarcerated youths with emotional or behavioral disorders are an especially neglected group in special education.
T or F: The ear is one of the simpler and least complex organs of the body.
T or F: Data indicates that very little interaction occurs between students who are deaf and those who are not:
T or F: Over 90% of children who are deaf have hearing parents.
T or F: Most speech problems are physiological not developmental:
T or F: Communication disorders can affect people of all IQ levels.
T or F: Stuttering is a result of nervousness or emotional problems
T or F: Speech disorders are contagious and you should never get close to someone with one.
T or F: Some speech disorders are preventable:
T or F: With treatment, a child is capable of outgrowing his/her communication disorder.
Two aspects of effective educational programming for students with ADHD are __________________ and ______________________
Functional behavioral assessment and contingency and classroom structure and teacher direction.
The definition of “emotionally disturbed” excludes children who _____________________.
Are socially mal-adjusted