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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
impasse layer
individual wonders how they are going to make it in the environment
Rogers ideas referred to as self theory
-for a healthy self to emerge, need postitive self regard
-in childhood a person receives conditional regard from parents and others. feeling of worth only if they behave in certain way
-gap forms between ideals self and actual self. Further the gap, more maladjusted
focused on helping individuals become more aware of many aspects of their personhood
have some beliefs in common:
the importance of anxiety, values, freedom and reasponsibility in human life. But they differ in their emphases.
Rollo May
-believed that anxiety could work for the good as well as the bad for people
-cofounder of the association for humanistic psychology
existentialists believe
-people form their lives by choices they make
-focus on freedom of choice and action that goes along with it
-people are responsible for any choice they make
Gestalt Therapy
-stresses perception of completeness and wholeness
-Gestalt means whole figure
-emphasis how people function in totality
-popularized by Fritz Perls
Vistor Frankl
-used the term logotherapy: logo implies search for meaning
phobic layer
avoid recognizing aspects of self that a person would prefer to deny

noogenic neurosis
feeling one has nothing to live for

existential vacuum
a sense that life has lost all meaning
existentialism focuses on
the meaning of anxiety in human life
counselor roles
-aware of the clients verbal & nonverbal language, and reflects back on what he is hearing & observing
-work as a facilitaor rather than a director
-limited use of psychologial tests, if so usually Q-sort test
Frankl-meaning goes beyond self actualization and exists at 3 levels
1. ultimate meaning
2. meaning of the moment
3. common, day to day meaning
techniques of existential counseling
-few techniques available
-to have a relationship with the client
-make use of confrontation
-accept the truth unique to each individual
most identified with person centered counseling
Role of existential counselors
-no uniform rules
-not unusual for counselor to share personal experiences to deepen the relationship
-emphasis on mutuality, wholeness & growth
-engage their clients in dialogue
-do not use psychological tests
phony layer
pretending to be something one is not
person centered counseling
-most widely used affective approach
-followed by Gestalt and existential counseling
counselor must
(in gestaly view)
1.promote client's exploration intensely & personally involved with client honest
goals of existential counseling
-help client realize the importance of meaning, responsibility, awareness, freedom and potential
-take more responsibility for their lives
-activities will be evaluated by client first
person centered counseling nature
-people are essentially good
-move toward self actualization from infancy on
Perls meaning of the word now
now = experience = awareness = reality
Affective theorists
focus on making an impact on clients emotions to bring about change
gestalt view
1.the now is what really matters
2.focus:awareness (healthy individuals are those who are most aware)
focused on helping individuals become more aware of many aspects of their personhood
goals of gestalt therapy
-emphasis on here & now
-recognize the immediacy of experience
-help client resolve past to be more integrated
gestalt view is antideterministic:
each person is able to change and become responsible
-not planned
-what is learned is a surprise to counselor & client
good stuff about existential approach
-uniqueness of the individual
-anxiety in not always negative
-stresses continued human growth and dev
-effective in mulitcultural counseling
-connect individuals to universal problems
-may be combined with other perspectives and methods
limitations of existential counseling
-has not produced a fully dev. model of counseling
-lacks educational and training programs
-difficult to implement beyond individual level
-closer to existential philosophy than to counseling
techniques of gestalt-2 forms
examples of exercises
1. dream work-counselor doesn't interpret, client directed to exprience what it is like to be each part of the dream, dramatized free association
2. empty chair-clients talk to various parts of their personality
3. confrontation-counselor points out incongruent behaviors and feelings
4. making the rounds
5.i take responsibility-client closes each stmt with "and I take responsibility"
6. exaggeration-accentuate unwitting movt or gestures
7. may I feed you a sentence
5 layers of neurosis that may interfere with being in touch with one self
1. phony
2. phobic
3. impasse
4. implosive
5. explosive
implosive & explosive
(often grouped together)
-feel vulnerable to feelings
-become alive in exploration of joy, sorrow & pain that leads to being authentic
-the "now" can be experienced fully
-ready made, such as enactedment of fantasies, role playing & psychodrama
-evoke certain response ie.anger
goal of person centered counseling
client as a person, rather than his or her problem
limitations of gestalt therapy
-lacks a strong theoretical base
-deals strictly with the now and how of the experience
-doesn't allow for passive insight & change
-eschews diagnosis & testing
-too concerned with individual dev. criticized for its self centerednesd
Perls viewed humans as
complete entities(holistic) rather than individuals made up of seperate parts
strenths of gestalt therapy
-emphasizes helping people incorporate and accept all aspects of life
-resolving areas of unfinished business
-doing rather than talking
-flexible & not limited to a few techniques
Rogers-phenomenological perspective
what is imprtant in the person's perception of reality rather than an event itself
Rogers-self actualization
most prevelent and motivating drive of existence and encompasses actions that influence the total person
3 periods of evolution in techniques

1. nondirective period(40's & 50's):form relationship by creating a permissive, noninterventetive atmosphere. Main techniques acceptance & clarification
2.Reflective Period (1950-1957):creating nonthreatening relationships, reflect underlying affect back to the client
3.Experiential Period (1957-1980):positive regard(acceptance), congruence (genuineness) & empathy
Good stuff in person centered counseling
-generated lots of research
-open relationship
-key-master listening skills
-positive view of human nature
person centered counseling
minimun emphasis on formal techniques and a maximum focus on the therapeutic relationship
ultimate goal of person centered counseling
client is helped to identify, use and integrate his or her own resources and potential
Godd stuff in person centered counseling
-generated lots of research
-open relationship
-key-master listening skills
-positive view of human nature
limitations of person centered counseling
-few instructions for counselors
-depends on bright, insightful, hard working clients for best results
-ignores diagnosis, the unconscious and sexual and agressive drives
-deals only with surface issues