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48 Cards in this Set

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countertransference
counselor's projected emotional reaction to or behavior toward the client
Johari window
see page 142, table 6.1
changing perceptions:
reframing-
-technique that offers the client another probable and positive viewpoint on the situation
-used in most forms of counseling
self disclosure

dyadic effect-
-reciprocal self disclosure
-can help establish trust
confrontation produces
-growth and encourages an honest examination of oneself
3 kinds of imtimacy
1. overall relationship intimacy
ex. how are you & I doing?
2. imtimacy that focuses on a particular event
ex. what is going on between you and me right now?
3.self-involving stmt's-personal responses to the client that are sometimes challenging
ex.I like the way you took charge in that situation
leading
-deliberate behaviors the counselor engages in for the benefit of the client

ex. slience, acceptance, paraphrasing, persuasion
3 fears counselors have about intimacy
1.afraid client will misinterpret the message
2.may produce an unexpected outcome
3.may influence the client to terminate the session because they can no longer control or manipulate relationships
changing perceptions:
goals-
1.redefining the problem
2.altering behavior in certain situations
3.perceiving the problem in a more manageable way and acting accordingly
confrontation
-often misunderstood
-is invitational, challenges a client to examine, modify or control an aspect of behavior that is currently nonexistent or improperly used
avoiding confrontation
MUM effect-counselor being less effective than he or she should be
leading
changing the clients perceptions requires persuasion and some direction from the counselor (known as leading)
counseling is
-not linear
-systemic with various factors impacting each other continuously
building the relationship
-developmental process that involves exploring the situation and motivating the client toseek help
-initially-exploratory and involvement phases of helping
then...
-counselor works with the client to move into understanding and action phases
contracts involve
1.written record of the goals the counselor and the client have agreed upon and the course of action to be taken
2.time limits may motivate the client
3.client may get a clear feeling that problems can be solved
4.puts responsibility for change on the client (enpowering the client)
5.outlines the # of seeeions to be held, assures the client will return regularly
5.
multifocused response
-responding in the client's own language

be aware some people are:
1.visual-see what is happening
2.auditory-hear the world arounf them
3.kinesthetically-feel situations as if they are physically in touch with them
intimacy is best used:
1.in a directionless relationship
2.where there is tension
3.where there is a question of trust
4.where ther is lots of diversity between counselor and client
5. where there is a client dependency
6. where there is a counterdependency
7.where there is a attraction between counselor and client
in contract
-include words like should or must
-avoid words like try or maybe
-focus on change
-goals are concrete
rehersal

homework-
-counselors can assign homework to help practice the skills learned
-advantages:
1.keep client focused
2.help them see the progression they are making
3.motivate client's to change
4.help them evaluate and modify their activities
5.make client responsible for control of themselved
6.celebrate a breakthrough achieved in counseling
rehersal
-overt-client to verbalize or act out what he or she is going to do
-covert-imagining or reflecting on the desired goal
countertransference- 2 forms

1.overidentification-counselor loses his ability to remain emotionally distant from the client
2.disidentification-counselor becomes emotionally removed from the client
intimacy requires
courage and assertiveness
humor
giving a funny, unexpected response to a question or situation
accurate empathy
-most vital element in counseling
rehersal

cognitive-behavioral counselors:
more likely to assign homework
effective use of helping skills
real relationship will form
humor requires
1.sensitivity
2.timing
transference

transference pull:
an image generated throught the use of personality and a particular theoretical approach
ex.client reacts to the image of the counselor in terms' of client's personal backgorund and current conditions
leading
-minimal leads(beginning of counseling process)- hmmmm, yes, I hear you
-maximal leads (employed after solid relationship is formed)- confrontational
transference (originated in psychoanalysis)
client's projections of past or present feelings, attitudes or desires onto the counselor
changing perceptions:
functional fixity-
seeing things in only one way or from one perspective and being fixed on the idea that this particular situation or attribute is the issue
real relationship is leading to social constructive perspective:
process by which people come to describe, explain, or otherwise account for the world (including themselves) in which they live.
2 factors make empathy possible
1.realizing that an "infinate number of feelings" do not exist
2.having the personal security to let yourself go into the world of the other person and know that you can return to your own world
contracting
-let's both parties participate in determining directions in counseling and evaluating change
-helps be more specific
-may save time
transference
1.negative-client accuses the counselor of neglecting or acting negatively toward him or her
2.positive-client admiration

-negative and positive transference are forms of resistence
-indirect & positive-least harmful
5 patterns of transference
client may perceive the counselor as
-ideal
-seer
-nurturer
-frustrator
-nonentity
confrontation
-relationship with client must be strong enough
-must be timed appropriatly
circular counseling
-same ground is covered over and over again
-avoid this
self disclosure
a conscious, intentional technique where clinicians share info about themselves outside the counseling relationship
countertransference

2 approaches:
1.classic approach-seen negatively, direct or indirect reaction of the counselor to the client
2.total approach-more positive,diagnostic tool for understanding aspect's of the client's unconscious motivations
immediacy
counselor's understanding and communicating of what is going on between the counselor and the client within the helping environment
empathy involves
1. perceptiveness
2. know-how
3. assertiveness
transference
1.direct-client who thinks of counselor as his own mother
2.indirect-revealed in client stmt's but is difficult to recognize
self disclosure serves 2 function
1. modeling-clients learn to be more open from counselors who are open
2. develope a new perspective
weaknesses of contracts
-time comsuming and personally taking
-cannot hold client to a contract
-client may become bored with this system
humor can
1.lessen client's resistance
2.dispel tension
3.help client distance themselves from psychological pain
4.encourage creative thinking
5.keep things in perspective
6.make it easier to explore awkward and difficult aspects of life
countertransference takes several forms:
1.constant desire to please the client
2.identifying with the problems of the client so much that one loses objectivity
3.developing sexual or romantic feelings to client
4.giving advice compulsively
5.wanting to develop a social relationship with the client
working relationship
-changing perceptions
-leading
-multifocused responding
-accurate empathy
-self disclosure
-immediacy
-humor
-confrontation
-contracting
-rehersal
-transference
-countertransference