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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Expanding on new ideas and concepts based on previous knowledge
Descriptive Study
Study that enables researchers to draw conclusions
Group Differences
Students of different backgrounds or genders
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Knowledge of effective methods to teach a subject area
Self Efficacy
Belief of being capable of performing job
Action Research
Research in a school to address issues and problems
Experimental Study
Study: manipulate one variable and have one control group--cause and effect relationship
Correlational Study
Explores possible relationships between variables
Types of Group Differences
Cognitive/ academic problems
Behavioral problems
Mental retardation
Physically Handicapped
Gifted children
Sensitive Period
Age range in which a child's development is especially impressionable due to environment
Characterized by developmental milestones: happen in a predictable manner
Modifying a scheme or creating a new one
Organized group of similar thoughts or actoins
Putting a new idea in an existing scheme
Rules for putting words together
Egocentric Speech
Speaking without consideration of other perspectives
Lack of Conservation
not realizing an object still exists even outside the field of vision
Sensorimotor Stage Age
Birth-2 years
Preoperational Stage Age
2-6 or 7
Concrete Operational Stage Age
6 or 7- 11 or 12
Formal Operational Stage Age
11 or 12- adulthood
Process of talking to oneself as a guide through a task
Zone of Proximal Development
Range of tasks a child can perform with a little help from someone more qualifies but not on their own
Support mechanism that helps a student perform within their ZPD
Knowledge of culture-specific social conventions--guides verbal interaction
Authoritative Parenting
Parenting style: emotional warmth, high standards for behavior, explanation and enforcement of rules, inclusion on children in decisions
Proactive Aggression
Deliberate aggression as a means of reaching a goal
Peer Pressure
Age-mates strongly encourage some behaviors and discourage others
Self Esteem vs. Performance of Peers
Previous performance (past failure or success), Behaviors of others (comparison), Group Membership and Achievement (higher esteem)
Promoting Positive Self- Perception
Perceptions, beliefs, judgments, and feelings about oneself
Erikson's Theory of Psychological Development
Opposite feelings: trust v mistrust, integrity v despair, intimacy v isolation, etc. Each has an age group
Imaginary Audience
Belief that one is the center of a social situation
Relational Aggression
Ostracizing or spreading rumors--intentional aggression
Reactive Aggression
Aggression as a response to frustration or provocation
Hostile Attributional Bias
Interpreting actions as being hostile
Fostering Social Skills
Provide opportunities for social interaction, plan cooperative activities, teach social skills, praise good behavior, teach problem solving
Kohlberg's Theory
3 stages of morality: preconventional- selfish decisions, conventional- using society's values, post-
conventional- abstract ideas
Promoting Moral Development
Give reasons for unacceptable behavior, practice emotional recognizatoin, encourage empathy, talk about moral dilemmas, service
Wait Time
Length of time allowed to answer question--usually >1 second, 10 seconds is ideal
Ethnic differences--cooperation vs. competition
Native American, Mexican American, Southeast Asian, Pacific Islanders recognize group achievement and resist personal competition
Gender Physical Differences
Academic- next to none
Physical and Motor- Boys better
Challenges for low income students
Hunger, nutrition, sleep deprived, lack of materials
Barriers for low SES to attend college
Money, no expectations to do so, high school preperation
Fostering Resilience
Be a role model, encourage, show interest, care
High Risk Students
High probability of failure--do not have the minimum academic skills needed to succeed
Gifted Females
Hide intelligence
(2 Examples for each)
Piaget's View
Actively construct knowledge through action
Having special education students in regular classrooms for as much time as possible