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185 Cards in this Set

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Exceptional Learner
Learner whose physical attributes and/or learning abilities differ from the norm (either below or above) to such an extent that they require an individualized program of special education.
Impairment
Any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological, or anatomical function.
handicap
the problems (disadvantages) encountered by a person with a disability when interacting with the environment.
at risk
learners who are considered to have a greater-than-usual chance of developing a disability or of being identified for special education.
A disability exists when
an impairment limits the ability to perform certain tasks within the range considered normal for a human being. Not all children are handicapped.
Why is it important to state precisely the number of exceptional children? What are the top 4 categories?
1. State Criteria
2. Resources of School Systems
3. Imprecise nature of assessment
4. Moves from one to another category at different stages of school life.
What are the 4 top classifications of exceptionalities?
- learning disabilities
-hearing impairment
-mental retardation
-emotional disturbance

(88% are in these 4 categories)
True or False?... The number of children in special education has not grown significantly since the mid-70s.
FALSE! There has been an overall incrase since 1976.
True or False?... New Early interventional programs have been major contributors to the increase since 1986.
True.
True or False?... Children in special education represent approximately 11% of the school-age population.
True.
True or False?...The ratio of males to females in special education is 2:1.
True.
True or False?... Approximately half of the students in special edcuation have mid disabilties (such as mild mental retardation, learning disabilities and behavior disorders)
False, 85%.
True or False?... Since the mid-70s, the number of students with learning disabilities has doubled while the percentage of students with mental retardation has decreased by more than half.
True, has doubled (1977-1991)
True or False?... the number of special education students decreases from age 3-9.
False.
True or False?... Federal Law mandates special education for gifted children.
False.
Brown v Board of Education of Topeka 1954
-seperate education is not equal (race). civil rights movement.
-influenced the rights of those who are disabled (equal protection under the law should apply- 14th amendment)
Pennsylvania Assocation for Retarded Citizens (PARC) v the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1972)
-challenged law that denied public education for those who were "unable to profit"
-free appropriate education for those with mental retardation and that placements in the regular classrooms were preferable (important)- should be in reg ed class if possible LRD
- Also parents must be notified of any changed in education program.
1975- Facts on Special Education. According to Congress..
-8 million children with disabilities
- half were not recieving appropriate education
-1 million were recieving no services.
IDEA- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act orginally called..
Education for All Handicapped Children Act
How long has IDEA been present?
since 1975 over 30 years.
The purpose of IDEA
- to insuer full citizenship of the disabled.
Laws were directed at
the states
The most recent revision of the law is...
IDEA now called the Indivials with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004.
manifestion determination
meeting of the IEP team if discipline results in placement change, suspension or expulsion of more than 10 days.
Zero Reject
- schools must education all children with disabilites.
-regardless of the nature or severity of the disability.
-no child may be excluded from a public education.
Child Find System
(under zero reject umberella)
-states are responsible for finding, identifying and evaluating all children from birth-21 suspended of having disability.
Nondiscriminatory Identification and Evaluation
-Schools must use nonbiased, multifactored methods of evaluation.
-individualized testing/in child's native language
-nondiscriminatory testing
-valid and reliable instruments
-trained personnel
-test administered correctly
Free, Appropriate public Education FAPE
-individualized education program (IEP) appropriate education provided at public expense.
-IEP must be developed and implemented for each student with disability to meet their unique needs.. Indiviual strengths and needs (goals and objectives)
-access to general education curriculum
- involvement in state and direct assessments
Least Restrictive Environment LRE
Mandates that students with disabilities be education with children without disabilties to the MAXIMUM extent appropriate and that students be removed to separate classes only when they cannot recieve an appropriate education in the regular classroom (due to severity of their disabilities)
-relative concept-- what is least restrictive for one student may not be least restrictive for another.
-IDEA creates a presumption in favor of inclusion in the regular classoom, if not must contain a justification.
-IEP must contain justification and explanation for time spent away from general education students-includes acadmics, extracurricular, and nonacademice activites.
Due Process Safeguards
-Schools must provide safeguards to protect the rights of children with disabilities and their parents.
-Parent consent for everything: -confidentiality
-if they disagree then -mediation of hearing, -parent's attorney fees are paid by state if parent wins, -most "due process" hearings are over placement and programs.
Parent and Student Participation
-schools must collaborate with parents and students with disabilties in the design and implementation of special education services.
-Parents and Student Participation -students needs, interests, and preferences.
Special Ed services for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers
- beginning in 1990 each state was required to serve children with disabilites ages 3-5 with same services non disabled peers were recieving or lose all future federal funds for preschols. Later included an incentive grant program to reach infants and toddlers. (IFSP)
Related services and assistive Technology (table 1.3)
schools must provide so students can access and benefit from special education.
Federal Funding
has never reached more than 12% of national average to fund an individuals school year suppose to be 40%.
New Features Introduced by IDEA 2004 pg. 24- Paperwork Reduction- Pilot Program
States submit proposals and if accepted get a 4 year waiver. Cannot negatively affect right to FAPE or civil rights.
New Features Introduced by IDEA 2004 pg. 24- Benchmarks and short term objectives delted from most IEP'
Alternative Assessment students must still have them.
New Features Introduced by IDEA 2004 pg. 24- Multi-year IEPs.
annually IEPs must be revised. (i made up this definition)
New Features Introduced by IDEA 2004 pg. 24- Highly qualified teachers
-key goal of NCLB
-all children taught by certified teachers
-special educators teaching 2 or more core subjects or teaching children working toward alternative achievement standards must meet additional requirements.
New Features Introduced by IDEA 2004 pg. 24- Identifying students with learning disabilities
-Not to rely on achievement/intelligence discrepancy.
-Response to instruction. If student respondes to intense intervention then not identified as LD.
Irving Independent School District v Tatro (1984) which principle of IDEA?
Zero reject
- school must provide reasonable medical procedures; child COULD NOT BE excluded.
-cannot be excluded for medical reasons.
Diana v State Bd. of Ed. (Cal; 1970) which principle of IDEA?
Nondiscriminatory Indentification and Evaluation
- must give tests in native language
-gave a test to a student who spoke Spanish an English test.
Larry P. v. Riles (1979) which principle of IDEA?
Nondiscriminatory Indentification and Evaluation
-standarized tests discriminate (norms)
-must consider culture
-not solely on IQ
-must use a variety of instruments-resolved by IDEA.
Bd. of Ed. v. Amy Rowler (deaf) (p 26) which principle of IDEA?
Free, appropriate public education
-Supreme Court
-Interpreter as a related service
-appropriate, not best.
-Benefit standard (not regressing or trivial progress)
-Enacting principles of IDEA
-went all the way to the Supreme Court, school system won because of benefit standard because not regressing.
Armstrong v Kline
-extended school year
-especially for severe disabilties
-ex- qualify if you take a test before a break then after the break the same test if given then looked at response.
Section of 504 of Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
- calls for non-discriminatory placement in the most integrated setting appropriate.
-cannot be excluded from any program or activity recieving federal funds on the basis of disability alone.
-patterned after Civil Rights Act of 1964.-race, color or national origin.
-placement in the most intergrated setting.
Family Education Rights and Privacy Act
1. parents and eligible students may examine educational records.
2. written permission to release parents.
3. Record explained and interpreted.
4. Can't destroy records
5. Records can be amended by parent!
6. Informed of rights.
The IDEA principle of ________________ mandates the students with disabilities be educated with students without disabilites to the maximum extent appropriate.
Least Restrictive Environment
Schools must provide ________________ to protect the rights of children with disabilties and their parents.
Due Process Safeguards
The IDEA principle of _____________ mandates that schools must educate all children with disabilties.
Zero Reject
The review process of whether or not there is a relationship between a student's misconduct and his or her disability is called ____________
Manifest Determination
Preventive
prevent potential or minor problems from becoming a disability (e.g. early intervention for at-risk preschool children)
Remedial
-eliminate the effects of the disability through instruction (e.g. teaching skills for independent functioning to a child with disabilities)
Compensatory
overcome disability through the use of skills or devices (orientation and mobility instruction for a child without vision)
relative services (physical therapy, occupational therapy)
services that a child with disabilities need in order to access and benefit from special education.
The majority of children with disabilities recieve most of their instruction in the __________ classroom.
Regular education
Many in regular education recieve individualized instruction in a ___________ for a portion of their school day.
resource room
regular class: less than ____% of the school day outside of general education class.
21%
resource room: _____% of the school day outside of general education class.
21-60%
separate class: ___% of the school day or more outside of general education class.
60%
separate school: recieve special education services at a public or private separate school at public expense __% of time or greater.
50%
residential facility: recieve special education at a public or private residential school at public expense __% of time or greater.
50%
Rank placements according to how many students with disabilities are served there from most to the least
-separate class
-residential facility
-resource
-regular class
-separate school
-home/hospital
Where are most students with disabilities served?
REGULAR CLASSROOM
True or False?.. Prior to 1975, school districts were legally allowed to deny enrollment of children with disabilities
True
True or False?..The legal principle, FAPE maens that all students with disabilities, regardless of type or severity shall be educated in general education classrooms, LRE.
False- FAPE means FAPE (free and meets individual needs of child) needs not necessarily met in the gen ed classroom but there is a presumption towards inclusion.
True or False?..The Law (PL 99-457) mandated early intervention services to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families.
False. encourages with increasing grants services to infants and toddlers through an individualized family services plan (IFSP)
True or False?..Under IDEA, parents have a choice as to whether or not they want to participate in the development of their child's IEP.
False.
True or False?..All students between the ages of 3 and 21 are guaranteed a right to a free, appropriate education
True. ages 6-17 are guaranteed.
3-5 and 18-21 must be educated by state if nondisabled in those age groups are educated by the state or risk losing funding
True or False?..All testing and evaluation procedures must be administered in a child's native language.
True
Process of Special Education (fig 2.1 pg 58-59)
-Pre-referral intervention
-evaluation and identification
-Program Planning (IEP)
-Placement in LRE
-Implementation (FAPE; implement IEP)
-Review and Evaluation
True or False?.. Schools are NOT obligated by law to do pre-referrals.
True
Referrals can be done by who?
parent, doctor, teachers, other professional.
It is the responsibilty of the district
to find/identify students with special needs AKA Child Find
If student is not responsive during evaluation and identification then he/she is referred for a
multi-factored evaluation
about __% of children evaluated are identified as disabled
73%
4 domains!
-cognitive
-behavioral
-physical
-developmental
multiple forms of assessment by multidisciplinary team
-observations
-interviews
-formal and informal testing
-records
-actual student work (portfolio)
-Curriculum Based measurement (CBM), graphs, charts
Disproportionate
Some groups overrespresented and some groups are underrepresented. Ex:
Disproportionate Placement of Culturally Diverse Students (CDS) in special education and why? 3 main reasons
-Incongruity between teachers and CDS and families may lead to biased referrals behavioral modes of AA children are unfamiliar and misunderstood by teachers.
-Inaccurate Assessment (poverity/trauma, disability, or diversity)
-Ineffective Curriculum and instructional practices for CDS.
Coordination
-simplest form of collaboration
-the special and gen ed teachers plan the daily schedule for a student
Ex: like a speech teacher; not involved.
-requires ongoing communication and cooperation.
Consultation
-the special ed teacher sharing info about teaching a student study strategies.
-more advanced form of collaboration
-one person provides expert advice to another
Teaming
-special and gen ed teachers co-teaching.
-Ex: IEP Team
-most advanced form and most difficult level of collaboration to achieve.
Co-teaching
2 or more teacheers planning and teaching together in an inclusive classroom.
one teaching/one helping
one person teaches and the other walks around and assists
parallel teaching
2 teachers teach the same lesson side by side.
station teaching
2 teachers teach different lessons to 2 different groups and they switch
alternative teaching
one teacher teaches to the majority of the classroom and the other teaches to a small amount.
Team Teaching
both teachers teaching.
Developing the IEP
the centerpiece of special education. It must be developed and implemented for identified students 3-21.
IEP
Individualized Education Program
FAPE
Free Appropriate Public Education
LEA
Local Education Agency
LRE
Least Restrictive Environment
SEA
State Education Agency
name the IEP Components
1. present level of performance
2. annual goals and objectives/benchmarks
-- benchmarks or short-term objectives
3. A description of how progress will be measured and when reports will be provided on progress.
4. Statement of specific educational services including related services and supplementary aides
5. Justification of why student would not participate in the regular class.
6. statement of any individual modifications needed in the administration of state/district testing
7. dates of services
8. statement
9. responsible parties
present level of performance
-How disability affects regular education involvement
-current functioning level
-domain or educational needs area
annual goals and objectives/benchmarks
-goals
-broad
-a specific behavior (measurable)
-overall yearly goal to make progress in the general curriculum both on academic and functional skills.
benchmarks or short-term objectives
-Conditions with what level of assistance
-Behavior measurable
-Criterion
Statement of specific educational services including related services and supplementary aides
-in relationship to general education- modifications, academic, nonacademic participation in extracurricular activities
-often in a checklist form
-to promote success.
Related services
Services that a child with disabilities may need in order to access and benefit from special education
Justification of why student would not participate in the regular class
-range of placement and service options to meet the individual needs of the student with disabilities (continuum of services)
-placement justification statement (LRE)
-justifies placement in special education and rationale for any time not spent in gen ed and accessing the general curriculum. Ex: Shirawill spend the majority of her time in the regular ed classroom and recieve consultation services 3 times a week for less than 3 hours a week.
statement of any individual modifications needed in the administration of state/district testing
-the IEP team determines if the student will participate in the regular assessment with modificates and if not why is it not appropriate and how will student be assessed.
dates of services
-date for beginning services
-frequency location and duration
statement
-how annual goals and objective will be measured
-how parents will be informed
repsonsible parties
-signatures
Inclusion
process of integrating children with disabilities into regular school and campuses (similar to mainstreaming) member of classroom.
-advocates support maintaining continuum of services; maintain that some children's needs will not be met in regular classroom and therefor require placement in special classrooms.
Full Inclusion
-full time placement in regular class; primary goal is social development.
-advocates support abolising continuum
CEC believes the continuum of services
must be maintained.
Full inclusionists typically advocates for students with
severe disabilities
inclusionists typically advocates for students with
mild/moderate disabilities
Once an IEP has been written when must it be implemented?
Immediately-30 days, except summer, vacations
-transportation must also be provided.
What happens to the student's IEP when he or she moves from one school to another?
Nothing, as long as the new school recieves a copy, parents satisfied, new LEA determines placement is appropriate
Must the IEP be reviewed at the beginning or end of each year?
no, but it should be read immediately by the new teacher and implemented.
How many IEP meetings must be held and how long must they be?
yearly, no prescribed length.
Who is the public agency representative/ LEA representative?
Qualified school staff (commits resources), often principal or vice principal or district personnel
must a gen educator attend the IEP meeting?
yes
Must the speech language specialisy attend if the primary disbability is something else?
no, but they need to be invited as well as other related services and collaborate on goals and objectives for speech.
Must the related services personnel attend the IEP meeting?
No, if they do not attend, it sould be noted in the General Student Information that they collaborated eith the special education teacher on the goals and objectives.
may the school write the IEP before the meeting and simply present it to the parent?
No, only a draft.
what does it mean when parents sign the IEP
-consent
-agrees to carry out the plan
-may revoke later.
do parents have the right to a copy of the IEP
yes
must parents be informed of their rights?
Yes, a full explanation of all procedural safeguards available to them. In written form, in their language, and discussed if necessary
What if parents adn the school disagrees about the IEP?
-Interim plan of agreement
-Mediation
-Due process Hearing
Can goals and objective be changed without initiating another IEP meeting?
No
Is the IEP info confidential
Yes, but should be used to guide education; destroy it by the end of the year.
Culturally Diverse
is preferred when referring to children with diverse backgrounds
Minority
attempt to catgorize by race, not culture.
Minority Group
carries some negative connotations.
Culturally Diverse implies no judgment and does not
equate cultural diversity with disability.
Children with disabilites are ___ times more likely to be abused and neglected
1.7 times
____ instead of arguing.
dialoguing
Family Centered services
effective changes for the child cannot be achieved without helping the entire family. Gives families the ability to maintain their children at home. ex: ISC Interagency Service Coordination
Strength Based Support
Assumes all families have strengths that can be built on and used to meet their own needs, accomplish goals and promore well-being of the family.
largest segment of school age children with mental retardation are considered to have ______
Mild MR
EMR
Educable mentally retarded- mild
TMR
Trainable- moderate
Why dont we use the terms EMR or TMR?
because it suggests predetermined achievement limits.
Mild Retardation
50-55 to 70
Moderate
35-40 to 50-55
Severe
20-25 to 35-40
Profound
below 20-25
The Conceptual Shift
Focuses on present functioning and environmental support needed to improve. Looked at the needs of the individual and not on degrees or definiency within the person.
the AAMR classified MR according to a profile of needed support identifed by an
interdisplinary team
intermittent intensity
-"as needed basis"
-often short term
-often during transitions
-may be high or low intensity
Limited intensity
-consistency over time
-limited amounts of time (not intermittent) Employment training
Extensive intensity
-regular involvement; daily.
-in at least some environments work or home
-not time-limited; long term support
Pervasive intensity
-constant and high intensity
-provided across environments
-potential life substaining
Mild MR may not be identified until
2nd or 3rd grade. Traits: master academis skills to 6th grade, independent or semi-independent; with good social skills may not be percieved as MR later in life.
Moderate MR
Traits: significant delays in development during preschool years; discrepancies grow as child grows; more apt to have health and behavioral problems and be affected thoughout life.
Severe and profound
identified shortly after birth.
5 Cognitive Functioning Deficits of Individuals with MR
-Memory
-Slow Learning Rate
-Attention
-Generalization of LEarning
-Motivation
Memory
have trouble with short term or working memory-- the ability to recall and use info encountered seconds to hours earlier. What does research say about long term memory and people with MR? Ex: Job training
Slow learning rate
trials to criteron is the number of practive trials needed before a student can respond correctly to a learning task without assistance. May need 20-30 trials to respond correctly without prompts. Use Go Fast- timed trials!
Attention
often have trouble attending and to sustaining attention to important features of a task, may focus on distractions strategy--simplify tasks, reinforce correct responses, gradually increase difficulty of task)
Generalization of Learning
May need to be programmed. Not good enough just to learn a task or skill. It must be used in different settings than the classroom.
Motivation
learned helplessness--expects failure despite efforts and outer directedness--rely on others for assistance. Both products of frequent failure.
Teach self-reliance for self-determination and reduce
passiveness
IQ tests are
norm referenced
standard deviation
statisfical term that means how far a score is from the average scroe or mean of all scores in the norm sample.
about ___% of the population falls 2 or more standard deviations below the mean, but only __% are identified as MR because we dont just look at these tests, we look at their ________
2.3%, 1%, adaptive behavior
True or False? IQ Tests have proven to be the best single predictor of school achievement
True, predicts doesnt really say anything though.
Adaptive behavior
is the effectiveness or degree with which the individual meets the standards of personal independence and social responsiblity expected of his age and social group.
____ causes of MR have been identified
250
however causes are unknown for, ___% of students wit Mild MR and __% of severe MR
50%, 30%
Specific biological causes are identified for about ____ or ___% of individuals with severe forms of MR
2/3 or 65%
__% of total school population is classified as MR
1%
___% of all school aged students in special education
9.6%
Persons with Mild MR make up about ___% of all persons with MR
85%
True or False- the causes of most cases of MR are known to biological or medical problems
False--environment
when no actual organice damage is evient the cause is presumed to be
psychosocial disadvantage/developmental retardation (environmental)
Prenatal causes
before birth
-chromosomal disorders (trisomy 21, down syndrome)
-Syndrome disorders (Prader-Willi Syndrome)
-Inborn errors of metabolism (PKU)
-Developmental brain disorders (hydrocephalus)
-Environmental influences (fetal alcohol syndrome)
Perinatal causes
during or shortly after birth
-Intrauterine disorders (premature delivery)
-Neonatal disorders (head trauma at birth)
Postnatal Causes
after birth
-head injuries (celebral concussion)
-infections (encephalitis)
-Demyelinating disorders (post infectionous disorders)
-Degenerative disorders (Rett Syndrome)
-Seizure disorders (epilepsy)
-Toxic Metabolic disorders (lead or mercury poisioning)
-Malnutrition (protein-calorie malnutrition)
-Environmental deprivation (psychosocial disadvantage
Prevention
Vaccine
Rubella causes severe damage in ___ to ___% of unborn children if mother contracts measles
10-40%
__% of total school population is classified as MR
1%
___% of all school aged students in special education
9.6%
Persons with Mild MR make up about ___% of all persons with MR
85%
True or False- the causes of most cases of MR are known to biological or medical problems
False--environment
when no actual organice damage is evient the cause is presumed to be
psychosocial disadvantage/developmental retardation (environmental)
Prenatal causes
before birth
-chromosomal disorders (trisomy 21, down syndrome)
-Syndrome disorders (Prader-Willi Syndrome)
-Inborn errors of metabolism (PKU)
-Developmental brain disorders (hydrocephalus)
-Environmental influences (fetal alcohol syndrome)
Perinatal causes
during or shortly after birth
-Intrauterine disorders (premature delivery)
-Neonatal disorders (head trauma at birth)
Postnatal Causes
after birth
-head injuries (celebral concussion)
-infections (encephalitis)
-Demyelinating disorders (post infectionous disorders)
-Degenerative disorders (Rett Syndrome)
-Seizure disorders (epilepsy)
-Toxic Metabolic disorders (lead or mercury poisioning)
-Malnutrition (protein-calorie malnutrition)
-Environmental deprivation (psychosocial disadvantage
Prevention
Vaccine
Rubella causes severe damage in ___ to ___% of unborn children if mother contracts measles
10-40%