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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is caused by failure of neural tube closure in the head region?
Anencephaly, which is due to degeneration of the brain through amniotic fluid exposure; always aborts
What is spina bifida?
Failure of neural tube closure, usually in the lumbar region.
Associated with paralysis, loss of control of bladder and bowels, hydrocephaly, and mental retardation
Hydro and retardation due to the spinal cord being teathered to the vertebral column, which pulls the brain down as the body grows
Both genetic and environmental causes
Can be prevented by folic acid supplimentation
When does the neural plate close to form the neural tube?
Week 4
Where do neural crest cells come from?
The neural folds
What is derived from ectodermal placodes?
The lens of the eye
Cranial ganglia
Anterior pituitary
Inner ear
What tissue induces the neural plate?
The mesoderm (mostly prechordal plate and notochord)
What does neurulation mean?
Describes neural induction and neural tube closure
What does the central canal, or lumen, of the neural tube form?
Ventricles of the brain
Central canal of the spinal cord
(filled with CSF)
What induces ventral spinal cord neurons?
The notochord
They are mostly motor neurons
What arises from neural crest cells?
Bones of head and face
Facial CT
Adrenal chromaffin cells
Cardiac outflow tract
Facial dermis
Middle ear bones
Name the three vesicles of the brain
Prosencephalon (forebrain)
Mesencephalon (midbrain)
Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
Name the two subdivisions of the prosencephalon (forebrain)
Telencephalon (the cerebrum or forebrain, basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, olfactory bulbs)
Diencephalon (makes the thalamus and hypothalamus, subthalamus, epithalamus, neural retina and optic nerves)
Name the two divisions of the rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
Metencephalon (pons and cerebellum)
Mylencephalon (medulla)
What is derived from the mesencephalon? (midbrain)
When is anterior neural tube closure complete?
About day 24
What is the neural contribution of neural crest cells?
Primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia and cranial nerve ganglia
autonomic neurons of sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia
Enteric nervous system
Schwann glial cells
Name the components of the spinal cord just following shh induction
Roof plate / alar plates -> sensory and interneurons
Widest point of lumen = sulci limitans
Basal plates -> Motor neurons
Floor plate
Where do mitotic cells reside in primative spinal cord?
Next to lumen; chill in metaphase
The brain is formed by adding layers
From where do the neural crest cells of the branchial arches comes from?
The rhombomeres of the rhombencephalon
What causes hydroencephalus?
Obstruction of CSF flow between the ventricles during development
Can result from excessive CSF production or interference in the uptake of CSF
Where is CSF produced?
The choroid plexus (from the metenchepalon)