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21 Cards in this Set

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What is Eutrophication?
Excessive algal production caused by increased nutrient availability
-Causes loss of light in deep waters, loss of dissolved 02 due to respiration by alga and Anoxic conditions kill fishies. Sewage runoff can contribute to Eutrophication in Lakes
What causes Acid Precipitation?

Who is affected?
Combustion of fossil fuels releases sulfur and this is the main cause of acid precipitation.

North America and Europe ecosystems downwind from industrial regions are damaged by rain and snow w/ nitric and sulfuric acid
What causes the C02 atmospheric levels to rise?
Due to increased burning of fossil fuels and other human activities.
Describe Greenhouse Effect
The greenhouse effect is caused by atmospheric C02 but it is necessary to keep the surface of the Earth at a habitable temperature.
Increased levels of atmospheric C02 are magnifying the greenhouse effect causing global warming.
What is Ozone?


It's been gradually thinning since 1975
Protective layer of molecules present in the atmosphere that protects the earth from UV radiation.
What causes the atmospheric ozone to be destroyed?
Results from chlorine releasing pollutants produced by human activity.
Where is the Ozone Hole
Antartica
What is ecosystem science
It is the study of energy flows and nutrient dynamics
Anthropogenic changes in atmosphere result in....
Global Warming and environmental effects
What role do bacteria and Fungi play in the nutrient cycle?
They are decomposers! (Known as Detritivores)
- By decomposing organic material returning elements to inorganic reservoirs.
Explain the green world hypothesis -
Why is the world green?
Green world due to
Plants natural defenses against herbivores
Nutrients not energy supply usually limit herbivores
Abiotic factors limit herbivores
Predator prey interaction check herbivore density
Why should humans eat just plants, instead of animals
If humans eat more plants, they would be eating more efficiently due to the fact that plants are primary producers and thus store much more energy. Energy is lost by the consumption to Animals, thus we would be recieving less in the trophic scale.
Which aquatic ecosystem has an inverted biomass pyramid?
Primary consumers of zooplankton and primary producer of phytoplankton!
What is the trophic efficiency range? (Percentage of production that is transferred from one trophic level to the next)
5 to 20%
Explain GPP and NPP
They are a measure of how much sunlight is converted to chemical energy


Total primary production - GPP (Equal to total photosynthesis or carbon fixation)
NPP - GPP minus energy used by the primary producers for respiration.(Only energy available to consumer is NPP)
why does the Open ocean have such low NPP?

It's as unproductive as the sahara Desert
Productivity in Open ocean areas is very low due to Low nutrient availability.

Nitrogen is needed for phytoplankton growth and Iron is needed for primary production in many areas. Nutrient supply is low, therefore open ocean has low NPP and mouth of river has a lot.
Why is the phytoplankton and zooplankton pyramid inverted?
Phytoplanton grow, reproduce and are consumed rapidly -
Quick turnover time essentially
What did the Hubbard Brook Experiemental forest show?
Showed that clearcutting forest causes a lot of N to be lost in form of runoff.

Remove vegetation, huge loss of soil nutrients
Tell me some Anthropogenic Effects
Eutrophication - Excessive algal growth due to nutrients from farm run off - lead to killing of fishes because algae takes o2 from them.

Acid Precipitation - Due to burning of fossil fuels and Sulfur is released into the atm. Results in forest decline.
Toxins concentrate in what trophic level?

Name a bad toxin and it's effect
Toxins are more concentrated in higher trophic levels.


DDT is a bad toxin, in H20 then zooplankton then fish then birds and birds suffer with reproduction, eggs are too fragile
What is depleting the ozone?
Ozone is being depleted thru use of Cl substances (FCCs)