Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Market Failure
A situation in which resources are not allocated to their highest valued use (absence of allocative efficiency)
First and Second Parties
Buyer and Seller
Private Costs
Cost that are born soley by the individuals involved in the transaction.
Third Party
People who are not directly involved in a given economic transaction
Social Cost
The Total cost of a transaction, the private cost plus the external costs
Social Benefits
The total social benefits derived from consuming a good, including the benefits to those who to NOT purchase the good
Merit Good
A good that has been deemed socially desirable throught the political process. (IB Use: Good that has positive externalities)
Market Solution
Using markets to solve an economic problem, such as negative externalities. IN such a solution, the forces of supply and demand (the invisible hand) are still allowed to function. For example, the use of effluent fees or marketizing pollution rights.
Non-Market Solution
using non-market solutions, such as government rules which regulate or ban the use of goods with negative externalities, to solve an economic problem. Such solutions disregard the forces of supply and demand.
Effluent Fee/Pigouvian Tax
A charge to a polluter that gives the right to discharge into the air or water certain amounts of pollution. Also called a "pollution tax" or "Pigovian tax"
Property Rights
he right of an owner to use and exchange property
Private Goods
A good that is consumed by only one individual at a time. These are subject to the principal of rival consumption and are excludable.
Principal of Rival Consumption
The recognition that individuals are rivals in consuing private goods becaue one persona consumption reduces the amount available to others.
Public Goods
Goods for which consumption is non-rival and non-excludable.
Exclusion Principal
The principal that no one can be excluded from the benefits of a pubic good, even if they have not paid for it.
Government Goods
Government (political) goods—Goods provided by governments, which may be private or public goods. Note: Often these goods require large investments and do not show a profit for a very long time.
Time Horizons
The period of time until which a person is willing to wait for a reward. Markets often fail to provide goods which have long time horizons.
Limited Information
when both parties to a sale do not have equal access to full information about a product. When this is the case, the market price will not be socially optimal.
Adverse Selection
When high quality consumers are producers are driven out of the market because of limited information
Free Rider
A consumer who enjoys the benefit of a good or servcie without paying for that good or service.
Government Failure
the public sector analogy to market failure that occurs when a government intervention causes a more inefficient allocation of goods and resources than would occur without that intervention.
Coase Theorm
The problem of negative externalities will solve itself if property rights are clearly defined and people are allowed to negotiate.