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### 4 Cards in this Set

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 test 4- How do you calculate the covariance of x and y? C(X,Y) = E(XY) - E(X)E(Y) test 4-How can you tell if the slope of a best linear predictor is nonzero? When the covariance or C(X,Y) is not = to '0', then the slope is not = to '0' test 4-When do you have evidence that X causes Y? Never! We are investigating a statistical relationship which has nothing to do with causality PS#2 E(X) is? Expected value of x, which is the sum of each of the individual occurrences of X /divided by the number of observations: Sum Xi/N