• Shuffle
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Alphabetize
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Front First
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Both Sides
Toggle On
Toggle Off
Toggle On
Toggle Off
Front

### How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

Play button

Play button

Progress

1/43

Click to flip

### 43 Cards in this Set

• Front
• Back
 present value a dollar paid to you one year from now is less valuable to you than a dollar paid to you today PV = CF/(1+i)n fixed pmt/fully amortized loan must be repaid by the same pmt every pd consisting of a part of the principal and interest for a set number of years coupon bond pays the owner a fixed interest pmt every year until the maturity date, when a specified final amount (FV or par value) is repaid identified by: corp/govt that issues it maturity date coupon rate (\$ amt of yearly pmt expressed as % of the FV of the bond) discount bond/zero coupon bond bought at a price below its FV (at a discount) and the FV is repaid at maturity doesn't make interest pmts US Tbills, US savings bonds simple loans pmt at maturity yield to maturity interest rate that equates the PV of CF pmts received from a debt instrument with its value today; most accurate measure of interest rates YTM: simple loan simple interest rate = YTM Future value (FV) or future cash flow (CF) of an investment of PV in n years at interest rate i (measured as a decimal, or 10% = .10) FVn = PV*(1+i)n Basis point fraction of a percentage point; 1 1/100th of a percentage point, .01% Important Properties of Present Value Present Value is higher: 1. The higher the future value (FV) of the payment. 2. The shorter the time period until payment. (n) 3. The lower the interest rate. (i) PV=CF/(1+i)n Consols make periodic interest payments forever, never repaying the principal that was borrowed. (There aren’t many examples of these.) Fixed Pmt Loans The same cash flow payment every period throughout the life of the loan LV = loan value FP = fixed yearly payment n = number of years until maturity LV = FP FP FP . . . + FP 1 + (1 + ) (1 + ) (1 + )n Coupon Bond - YTM PV is calculated as the sum of the PVs of all pmts plus PV of the final pmt of the FV of the bond Pb = [C/1+i + C/(1+i)2 + C/(1+i)3 . . . + C/(1+i)n +F/(1+i)n When CB is priced at its FV YTM = CR When YTM rises/falls, P of bond falls/rises negatively related YTM is ____ than the CR when the bond price is below its FV greater than Consol • Infinite maturity • No face value ( does not repay principal) • Fixed coupon payment of C (dollars) forever. P = C / i (YTM) as YTM of consol bonds increases, P of bond _____ falls current yield yearly coupon pmt divided by the price of the security for LT bonds YTM for 1yr discount bond i = F-P/P = increase in price over the year divided by the initial price; should be positive yield to maturity is negatively related to the current bond price. YTM on a discount bond (FV/P)^(1/n) - 1 sold at some price P, and pays a larger amount (FV) after t years. There is no periodic interest payment. return/rate of return how well a person does by holding a bond or any other security over a particular time pd. pmt to owner + change in value expressed as a fraction of purchase price return does not necessarily = YTM on that bond return on a bond held from time t to time t+1 R=(C+ Pt+1 - Pt)/Pt or C/Pt + Pt-1 - Pt/Pt Current yield C/Pt; coupon pmt over purchase price rate of capital gain change in bond's price relative to the initial purchase price Pt-1 - Pt/Pt=g return on a bond =current yield + rate of capital gain will differ from interest rate For Zero- Coupon Bonds or Discount Bonds Given n: the price of a bond and the interest rate move ______ in opposite directions. The more distant a bond's maturity, the _____ the size of the % price change assoc. w/interest rate change greater more distant a bond's maturity. the ____ the rate of return that occurs as a result of increase in interest rate lower even though a bond has a substantial initial interest rate, its return can turn out ____ if interest rates rise negative prices and returns for LT bonds are more _____ than those for ST bonds volatile interest rate risk riskiness of an asset's return that results from interest rate changes 2 characteristic of current yield 1. Is a better approximation of yield to maturity, nearer price is to par and longer is maturity of bond 2. Change in current yield always signals change in same direction as yield to maturity The holding period return the return to holding a bond and selling it before maturity. The holding period return can differ from the yield to maturity. There is ____interest-rate risk for any bond whose time to maturity matches the holding period no Reinvestment risk if holding pd. exceeds term to maturity, proceeds from sale of bond are reinvested at a new interest rate Nominal interest rate makes no allowance for inflation Real interest rate adjusted for changes in price level so it more accurately reflects the cost of borrowing Ex post real interest rate adjusted for actual changes in the price level Ex ante real interest rate adjusted for expected changes in the price level Fisher Equation i = nominal interest rate ir= real interest rate πe = expected inflation rate When the real interest rate is low,there are greater incentives to borrow and fewer incentives to lend. The real interest rate is a better indicator of the incentives to borrow and lend. i = ir + piof e nominal interest rate equals the real interest rate plus the expected rate of inflation when real interest rate is low there are ______ incentives to borrow and ______ incentives to lend greater fewer indexed bonds interest and principla pmts are adjusted for changes in price level