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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the change in a population's genetic makeup over successive generations.
4 components of natural selection
1. genetic variation
2. overproduction of offspring
3. struggle for existence
4. differential survival and reproduction
Example of 1. Genetic Variation (natural selection component)
[The characteristics a species is given to become more advantageous] {longer billed hummingbirds more likely to survive in areas w/ long plants; variation of long & short billed}
Example of 2. overproduction of offspring (natural selection component)
[species reproduce more offspring than end up surviving] {hummingbirds produce many offspring, but only 1 or 2 survive}
Example of 3. struggle for existence & 4. differential survival & reproduction (natural selection component)
[species struggle & try & adapt to the environment]&[species compete for food, shelter, and space] {hummingbirds develop long bills over time giving them adequate food supply so they can pass on their traits}
4 characteristics of populations.
1. distribution
2. spacing of population
3. no. of individuals in pop.
4. density
explain distribution limits.
environment limits where species can live [e.g. too high temps. force species to move to area w/ proper temps.]
3 patterns of small scale.
1. regular
2. clumped
3. random
Interaction of 3 small scale patterns.
1. regular=repel each other
2. clumped=attract each other
3. random=ignore each other
{also, clumped=patchy distribution of nutrients}
Population density correlation in large scale.
Pop. density declines w/ increased organism size
{small bacteria live in highly dense populations}
3 influences of rarity & vulnerability to extinction.
1. geographic range of species=extensive vs. restrictive
2. habitat tolerance=broad vs. narrow
3. local population size=large vs. small
Type 1 survivorship curve description.
*high survival of young & middle-aged
*high deaths of older members
{e.g. humans, red deer}
Type 2 survivorship curve description.
*constant survival
*members die at approx. same rate throughout life
{birds, American Robin}
Type 3 survivorship curve description.
*high deaths of young
*large no. of young
{mackerel lay millions of eggs, but most die in first 70 days}
name of maximal population in presence of limiting resources & symbol for it.
carrying capacity & K
Relationship between offspring no. & offspring size
those that produce larger offspring produce fewer offspring & vice versa
Relationship between adult survival & age of reproduction.
where adult survival is lower, organisms begin reproducing at an earlier age & vice versa