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36 Cards in this Set

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Shared derived trait that defines a clade
Coleochaetales and Charales
Green algaw that gave rise to the land plants.
Form a momphyletic group with land plants called streptophytes
1. Cuticle
2. Stomata
1. Cuticle- Waxy covering that retards water loss
2. Stomata- Small closeable openings in leaves and stems that are used to regulate gass exchange. (not present in liverworts).
Xylem- Transports water rhyzom or root up
Phloem- Transports sugars from photosynthetic area down.
Collenchyma- Support tissue
Tracheid- Primitive zylem for water transport. Tracheal tissue allows plants to reach sky.
Gymnosperm- Conifers
Angiosperms- Flowering plants
Plants adapted to dry environments:
Behavioral, structural, &chemical adaptations (Crassulacean acid metabolism)
Dorsal= Top (back)
Ventral= Bottom (belly)
Anterior= head
Posterior= butt
Ovipositor- Wasps stings and lays eggs in host
Chelicera- Spiders mandible jaws
Organisms that live within body cells of other organisms
Pathogens= disease
Parasitoid- Spends significant portion of life attached to a single host.
Cost- benefit analysis
of behavior is based on the concept that animals have limited time and energy
Prerequs for adaptive traits (or natural selection)
Variation in a trait, trait is heretible, results in differencial survival and reproduction
Tangled Bank Hypothesis
Sexual reproduction if benefiacial because of the diversification of offspring
Red Queen Hypothesis
Sexual reproduction is beneficial because it keeps pace with rapidly evolving parasites/ disease
What is a population?
Induviduals of the same species in a given area at a given time
Features of a population
Size, density, change in size over time, age structure, genetic structure
Areal extent of a population or species. They expand and contract
Exponential growth formula
dN/dT= rN
Change in numbers over change in time= growth rate
What prevents continued exponential growth (logistic model)?
External (density independent factors)
Self regulation (density dependent)
Interractions with other species (Density dependent)
Intraspecific Competition
The effect of induviduals in a population on other induviduals. Acts to increase death rate or decrease bith rate.
Statistic Life Table
Summarizes mortality and survival rates. Shows survivalship with age
Cohort Life Table
Measures the survival and fercundity of a cohort of induviduals.
Semelparious= One big bang reproduction
Iteroparus= Repeated episodes
Found in arctic at high elevations
Boreal/ Temperate evergreen forests
Occurs at Lat. below arctic Tundra. Trees, shrubs, permeal herbs. Low percipitation
Temperate deciduous forests
NE U.S, Asia, Europe. Winter= Cold Summer= warm and moist
Mostly dry through much of the year. Pkant richness= fairly high. Animals= few birds, but many mammals. Top soil is rich for growing crops
Hot deserts
Located at 30 degrees N. and S. of equator. Animals= reptiles, bees, rodents.
Cold deserts
Found at dry regions mid- high lat. Not many plants. Animals= seed eating birds, ants, and rodents
Midwest side of continent. Winter= cool and wet Summer= warm and dry. Plants= low growing shrubs and trees. animals= bees, rodents, reptiles.
Tropical Rainforest
most diversity in species. Soil is nutrient poor
Located on N. part of equator. contains needle leaf trees. Located just below tunda. Birds migrate here
Assemblage of species in the same place at the same time
Types of Intraspecific competition
Competition (-, -)
Consumer resource (+, -)
Mutualism (+, +)
Commensalism (+, 0)
Ammensalism (-, 0)
Types of competition
1. Interference- Direct competition; Physically prevents establishment
2. Exploitation- Indirect competition between species. Common in plants that co-occur with each other.
3. Apparent- Indirect comp. Occures when 2 species (a+b) that are both resources for another species (c).