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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ability to do work
First Law of Thermodynamics
"Law of conservation of energy". Energy may be transformed from one form into another but is neither created nor destroyed.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
"Law of entropy". Because some energy is always dispersed into unavailable heat energy. No spontan. transformation. transformation of energy into potential energy is 100% efficient
Measure of randomness or disorder
Potential Energy
Stored energy
Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion
Energy Flow
Transfer of energy through the food chain of an ecosystem
Energy: One way or Cyclic?
One way
Matter: One way or Cyclic?
Solar Radiation
Used to drive chemical reactions of photosyn.
Types of Solar radiation
Types of invisible light
Shorter wave-UV
Longer wave-Infrared
Thermal Radiation
Comes from any surface that has a temperature. W
Primary Productivity
Rate at which radiant energy is converted by the photosynthesis and chemosynthesis activity of producer organisms to organic substances.
4 steps in the production process
1. Gross primary productivity
2. Net primary productivity
3. Net community productivity
Gross primary productivity
Total rate of photosynthesis including organic matter used up in respiration.
Net primary productivity
Rate of storage of organic matter in plant tissue that exceeds the respiration use.
Net community productivity
Rate of storage of organic matter not used by heterotrophs. NPP-heterotrophic consumption.
Secondary productivity
Rates of energy storage at consumber levels. Should not be divided into gross/net because consuming food material already produced.
A natural unsibsidized solar-powered ecosystem
1. Energy input-sunlight, etc
2. Natural byproducts
3. energy loss-heat
Human subsidized, solar powered ecosystem
1. Energy input-rain, sunlight, fossil fuel, fertilizer, pesticides.
2. Natural byproduct-
3. Unnatural byproduct- clean up subsidized.
4. negative side
Biodiversity increase may ------ productivity
Biodiversity increases number of species thus increasing productivity
Productivty increases almost always ------- biodiversity
Coral reef example of productivity/biodiversity
Nitrogen enrichment cause an increase in smothering algae which increase unknown diseases and destroy diversity
Dinoflagellates example of productivity/biodiversity
Pollutants can increase dinoflagellates which release a toxin in such increase amount that cause massive dying fish
Shade-adapted plants
High concentration of chloroplast. Chlorophyll in horizontal position. Because diffused light have less biomass
direct light adapted plants
Low concentration of chloroplast. Chlorophyll in vertical position.
Ecological pyramid
Shows the relationship between numbers, biomass, and energy flow.
Pyramid of numbers
Model or diagram that depicts the amounts of standing crop biomass at different trophic levels of an ecosystem.
Pyramid of biomass
Model or diagram that depicts the amounts of standing crop biomass at different trophic levels of an ecosystem
Grazing food chain
Food chain in which green plants are eaten by grazing herbivores which subsequent energy transfer up the food chain to carnivores.
Detritus food chain
Food chain in which the primary producers are not consumed by grazing herbivores but where dead and decaying plant parts from litter on whcih decomposers and deritivores feed which subseqent transfer of energy through the detritus food chain.
Dead or partially decomposed plant and animal matter; nonliving organic matter
Organisms that feed on dead or decaying organic matter (earthworms)
Food chain originating fom the nector of flowering plants, frequently dependent on insects and other animals for pollination. High quality.
Food chain originating with feeding on seeds. High quality