• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/52

Click to flip

52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Population
a group of individuals of the same species in a given area

-populations have characteristics that individuals do not
A group of individuals of the same species in a given area
population

- have characteristics that individuals do not
Density
number of individuals per unit area
Number of individuals per unit area
Density
Sex ratio
the number of males to females

-can influence social structure and behavior
Number of Males to females

-can influence social behavior
Sex ratio
Age structure
relative proportion of individuals of idfferent ages
relative proportion of individuals of idfferent ages
Age structure
Dispersion
physical, the arrangement of individuals in space
physical, the arrangement of individuals in space
Dispersion
Clumped population dispersion
groups of 2 or 3 at a uniform distance apart from each other
groups of 2 or 3 at a uniform distance apart from each other
Clumped Population dispersion
Random Population dispersion
random dispersion, individuals no certain distance just "random"
random dispersion, individuals no certain distance just "random"
Random Population dispersion
Uniform population dispersion
individual uniformly apart from each other. (birds with eggs and nest areas)
individual uniformly apart from each other. (birds with eggs and nest areas)
Uniform population dispersion
Per capita birth and death rate
number of births and death relative to population size
How many people are born each second
24
Simple model of population growth

formula
change in population size over time = number of births - number of deaths

delta N/ delta t

How do you calculate number of births?
Birth rate = Births x population size

Death rate = death rate x population size
Equation for population growth
Nsubt = NsuboE^rt

Nsubt = population size at t in the future
Nsubo = population size now
e = 2.718
r = per capita population growth
t = time
What do we know about exponential growth
occurs in limited enviroments

population is closed

r is constant

all individuals are alike

no time lags


demonstrates tremendous growth potential of all populations
unrealistic model

population growth slows as population size decreases
Density Dependent factors
regulate population size, operate more intensely as N increases to limit population size
regulate population size, operate more intensely as N increases to limit population size
Density dependent factors
Density Independent factors
kill w/o regard to population size
kill w/o regard to population size
Density independent factors
Exponential population growth line shape
J shaped
Logistic population growth
S shaped
Range of Tolerance
range of abiotic conditions within which an organism can survive

abiotic means enviromental factors
Range of optimum
range of conditions within which an orgnaism thirves

-narrower than the range of tolerance
Behavioral adjustment
Short-term adjustments to maintain a favorable physical enviroment
Short-term adjustments to maintain a favorable physical enviroment
Behavioral adjustment
Physiological adjustment
medium term changes allow an organism to acclimate to the enviroment
medium term changes allow an organism to acclimate to the enviroment
Physiological adjustment
Genetic adjustment
over the long term, populations can adapt to changing conditions via natural seclection,

- changes in populations not individuals
over the long term, populations can adapt to changing conditions via natural seclection,

- changes in populations not individuals
Genetic adjustment
Basic adjustments organisms often make result in genetically distinct local populations called ______
- _______ are adapted to their particular local enviroment
Ecotypes
Where is grass' apical meristem
at base
Where do carnivorous plants live?
bogs and swamps, acidic soil, nutrient poor habitats
Parasitism
parasites live in intimate association with host and consume it slowly (often not killing)

endo vs ecto

free-living vs non-free living

- american chestnut
Small pox virus and ______
native americans
Parasitoid -
when organisms lay egg on or in host
host eaten after eggs hatch
when organisms lay egg on or in host
host eaten after eggs hatch
Parasitoid -
Predation can limit the distribution and abundance of prey.
- it is also an important selective force
prey are under strong selection to avoid predators

predators are under strong selection to find and capture prey
predator and prey populations should cycle (go up and down)
- (predator populations "track" prey popuations)

-predators can limit the abundance or distribution of prey
- example red kangaroo and dingos in australia

-evolution tends to favor all sorts of predator avoidance strategies
Ways to avoid predators
1. Flee (run/swim/fly) - gazelles and birds

2. Mechanical defense ( shells spines) armadillos, porcupines

3. Live in groups - buffaloos, birds flocking
a. more eyes
b. confusion
c. group defense (mobbing, attack)
d. selfish herd (safety in numbers)

4. Camouflage/ Hide (cryptic coloration/decption)

5. Aposometic coloration (colors that warn of toxins or potent defense) poison dart frogs
Batesian mimicry
a palatable prey species mimics an unpalatable species (coral and king snake)
a palatable prey species mimics an unpalatable species (coral and king snake)
Batesian mimicry
Mullerian Mimicry
several unpalatable species resemble each other (butterflies)
several unpalatable species resemble each other (butterflies)
Mullerian Mimicry
How do plants avoid predators
1. Mechanical defense (thorns, spines, silia)

2. Masting (producing seeds in huge numbers) overwhelms ability of seed predators to find and eat all seeds

moth larvae consume 38% of beech seeds in a non-mast year but only 3% in a mast year

3. Chemical Defenses - plants are superior chemists, they produce a host of chemical to repel herbivores
- best example of arms race
Secondary plant compounds
chemicals produced by plants that are not needed for their primary metabolism
chemicals produced by plants that are not needed for their primary metabolism
Secondary plant compounds
Plants run the risk of herbivores evoloving to detoxify or appropriate their defenses example?
monarchs use the glycosides obtained from milkweed plants as a toxin to repel their own predators