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98 Cards in this Set

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What are the four main levels of ecology?
organism, population, community, ecosystem
individual interaction with environment and each other.
ex. male and female salmon fight during breeding season

physiological/ behavioral adaptations that affect fitness (ability to reproduce) of individuals
Organism ecology
Number of individuals in a population changing over time
ex. mathematical models

group of individuals from the same species that live in the same place at the same time
Population ecology
How species interact and the consequences of their interaction
ex. salmon can be predator and prey
Community ecology
Energy and nutrient cycle through environment; biotic and abiotic factors
ex. salmon dies and decompose..circle of life

species in ecosystem-> effect on species
Ecosystem ecology
Cycle in global air circulation; regions with rising air tend to be wetter than regions with descending air
Hadley Cell- cycle
Biome with high temp and precipitation, low variation in temp
ex. belem, Brazil
Tropical Wet Forests
biome with low precipitation and varying temperature located at approximately 30 degrees latitude
Subtropical desert
biome with moderate temp, summers long and warm, winters cold and short; many grasses
ex. denver, Colorado
Temperate grassland
biome with moderate temp, moderate precipitation; broad leaved deciduous trees
ex. Chicago, Illinois
temperate forest
biome with very cold winters, short summers, high variation in temp, low variation in precipitation; low productivity; needle leaved evergreens
ex. Canada, Russia, Alaska
Boreal Forest (Taiga)
biome with temp and precipitation very low, treeless, low productivity
Arctic Tundra
aquatic zone characterized by the seashore, shallow where plants are rooted; high photosynthetic productivity
Littoral Zone
aquatic zone characterized by open water that supports photosynthesis
ex. lake
limnetic Zone
aquatic zone characterized by the depth of zone; provides habitat for animals and bacteria
ex. common area for decomposers
benthic Zone
bodies of water that move constantly in 1 direction
stream
environment where the river meets ocean; one of the most productive environments on earth
Estuary
marine environment along the shore
intertidal zone
marine environment that spans from intertidal zone to the open ocean 200m deep... defined by the end of the continental shelf and where most fishing occurs
Neritic Zone
marine environment that spans the rest of the open ocean, unproductive
Oceanic Zone
explains how actions occur in terms of neurological, hormonal, and skeletal-muscular mechanisms involved.... how does an individual do something?
Proximate behavior study
Explains why actions occur; based on the evolutionary consequences and history... why does an individual do something?
ultimate behavior study
change in behavior that results from specific experience in life of individual
learning
stereotypical behavior patterns that
1. have no variation in performance
2. species specific
3. once action begins it continues to completion
ex. innate behavior
Fixed Action Patterns (FAP)
type of learning where individual is trained by experience to give the same response to more than one stimulus
ex. pavlov dog
classical conditioning
a form of navigation that uses familiar landmarks
piloting
form of navigation where the movement is oriented in a specific direction
compass orientation
self- sacrificing behavior
altruism
measure of how closely the actor and beneficiary are related for altruism to occur
Coefficient of relatedness
Rule that states if the fitness benefits of altruistic behavior are..
1. high for recipients
2. recipients are close relatives
3. fitness cost to altruist low
..then alleles associated with altruistic behavior will be favored by natural selection
Hamilton's rule
the study of factors that determine the size and structure of a population over time; population depends on birth, death, immigration, and emmigration
demography
table that summarizes probability that an individual will survive and reproduce in any given year over the course of it's lifetime
life table
proportion of offspring produces that survive on average to a particular age
survivorship
a group of the same age that can be followed through time
cohort
number of female offspring produced by each female in the population
fecundity
r-max; when birth rate is as high as possible and death rate is as low as possible; function of species life history
Intrinsic rate of Increase
how an individual allocated resources to growth, reproduction, and activities related to survival
life history
model that estimates the likelihood that a population will avoid extinction for a given time period
population viability analysis
the study of how organisms interact with their environment; goal is to understand distribution and abundance of organism.. why certain species live where they do and how organisms interact with environment
ecology
social movement that believes human actions are leading to degradation of the planet
1. uses ecological info for guidance on environment questions/ issues
2. morals, biases, trying to change
environmentalism
niche where abiotic range of conditions is favorable to species (all characteristics)
fundamental niche
Niche that is modified by biotic interactions (competition and predation)... where organisms actually exist
realized niche
study of how the interplay between biotic interactions and abiotic conditions translated into broad scale patterns of biodiversity
biogeography
energy invested into new tissue per unit of time
..limiting factors include nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, minerals)
net primary productivity
diagram that demonstrates the energy flow from organism consumed to consumer
Food web
How do humans alter the nitrogen cycle?
fossil fuels, nitrogen fixing crops, nitrogen fertilizes
What does extra nitrogen do?
1. causes aquatic life to boom then bust
2. dead zone in gulf of mexico
use of defense of resource by one individual that reduces availability of that resource to other individuals
competition
competition within a species
intraspecific
competition between species
interspecific
How do humans alter the nitrogen cycle?
fossil fuels, nitrogen fixing crops, nitrogen fertilizes
What does extra nitrogen do?
1. causes aquatic life to boom then bust
2. dead zone in gulf of mexico
use of defense of resource by one individual that reduces availability of that resource to other individuals
requirements:
1. limited resources
2. shared resources
competition
competition within a species
intraspecific
competition between species
interspecific
Principle that states that it is not possible for two species with the same niche to coexist
Competitive Exclusion Principle (Gause)
association of interacting species in a defined area
Ecological Community
number of species in an ecological community
richness
combination of richness and relative abundance for species
diversity
A way to measure diversity where H' is between 0-1 (probability)

-increases with richness
-increases with evenness
Shannon-Weaver Index
Type of succession where nothing is left after disturbance so succession is slow
primary succession
type of succession where some organisms and soil survive after disturbance; succession rapid
secondary succession
Hypothesis that states:
1. diversity maximum at intermediate time following a disturbance
and/or
2. diversity maximum at intermediate level of disturbance
Intermediate Disturbance hypothesis (IDH)
relationship where disturbance decreases diversity occurs in the...
desert, forest
relationship where disturbance increases diversity occurs in the...
grasslands, intertidal zone
4 important factors that affect species diversity
area, predation, habitat diversity, disturbance
field of science that studies species with the threat of extinction
Conservation Biology
biodiversity is important because it (3 reasons):
1. ecosystem stability
2. ecosystem services
3. provides good and services
type of diversity where total genetic in formation is contained within a species
genetic diversity
type of diversity that depends on richness and abundance
species diversity
type of diversity that depends on the variety of biotic communities in a region
ecosystem diversity
3 major factors that cause populations to decline include:
1) habitat loss
2) overexploitation
3) introduction of exotic species
(-/-) relationship that occurs when different individuals use the same resources and when those resources are limited
Competition
pairs of species that influence each others evolution
ex. predator/prey; parasite/host
coevolutionary arms race
competition within species (usually for space, sunlight, food) ; major cause of density- dependent growth
intraspecific
competition between species
Interspecific
principle that states that it is not possible for species with the same niche to coexist
competitive exclusion principle
type of competition where one species suffers a much greater fitness decline then the other
asymmetric competition
type of competition where each species experiences roughly equal decrease in fitness
symmetric competition
type of competition where 2 species consume the same resources
consumptive competition
type of competition where 1 species makes space unavailable to others
preemptive competition
type of competition where 1 species grows above other
overgrowth competition
type of competition where 1 species produces toxins that hurt other species
chemical competition
type of competition where 1 species protects its territory from the other
territorial competition
type of competition where 2 species interfere directly for access to specific resources
encounter competition
when harmful prey species resemble each other
Mullerian mimicry
when harmless prey species resemble harmful species
Batesian mimicry
Hypothesis that states that herbivore populations are limited by predation or disease
top down control
hypothesis that contends that plants are a poor food source in terms of nutrients they provide for herbivores
ex. nitrogen limitation
poor-nutrition hypothesis
hypothesis that states that plants defend themselves effectively enough to limit herbivory
plant- defense hypothesis
(+/+) interaction where both organisms benefit from interaction
mutualism
species that has a much greater impact on surrounding species than its abundance would suggest
keystone species
3 hypotheses to explain what limits length of food chain
1. energy transfer
2. stability (through disturbances)
3. environmental complexity
the total amount of photosynthesis in a given area and time period
gross primary productivity
efficiency with which plants use the total amount of energy available to them
gross photosynthetic efficiency
completely decayed organic material
humus
areas drained by single stream
watershed
4 components of an ecosystem
1. abiotic environment
2. primary producers
3. consumers
4. decomposers