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133 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
groups of individuals of species that live together
network of distinct populations that interact by exchanging individuals
dispersers from better areas bolster poor areas
source-sink metapopulations
statistical study of populations
proportion of male to females, often not very dependent on males
sex ratio
av. interval btwn birth of indiv and offspring
generation time
group of same age individuals
characteristic birthrate
relative number of indivs in each cohort
age structure
percentage of origiional pop that survives to given age
dispersion due to competition and behav. interactions aka plants and water
uniformly spaced
dispersion due to nonuniform aspects of environment, like trees
randomly spaced
disperision due to uneven distrubution of resources
clumped spaced
reduction in future reproduction potential due to current reproductive efforts
cost of reprod
focus all reporductive resources on 1 event and then die
produce offspring several times over many seasons
assumes rate of pop inc is without limits on rate of growth
biotic potential
maximum # of indivs environment can support
carrying capacity
affect that states growth rates can increase with population size
allee affect
populations adapted to thrive when pop is near carrying capacity. low reprod rates, big offspring
k-selected populations
populations far below k. cost of reprod low.
r-selected populations
sum of all the ways an org utilizes enviro's resources
2 species attempt to use same limited resource
interspecific competition
same species attempt to use same limited resource
intraspecific competition (interference, exploitative)
entire niche a species is capable of using
fundamental niche
niche an org actually uses
realized niche
principle that the more efficient resource user will elim the other (no 2 can occupy same space w/ limited resource)
princ of competitive exclusion
the ability to divide ones fundamental niche with another org
niche overlap
subdividing niche to reduce competition
resource partitioning
species that occupy same area and partition resources
sympatric species
form and structure of org is different for sympatric species
morphology (birds & tree insects)
chemical defense, camouflage, defensive coloration
ways to protect from preds
harmless insect mimics appearnces of dangerous insect
batesian mimicry
poisonous animals look similar
mullerian mimicry
interactions that involve longterm mutal evolutionary adjustment of chars
2 or more orgs live together in elab, perm relats
commensalism, parasitism, mutualism
3 types of symbiosis
1 benefits from relat, the other is neutral
commensalism (fish and sea anemone)
one feeds off the other, harms them
parasitism (lice and human)
both benefit from relat
mutualism (bees and flowers)
species with particularly strong effects on community
keystone species (starfish, beaver)
ecosystems change from simple to complex
ecological succession
succession when existing community had been disturbed- cleared forest
secondary succession
formation of life on barren volcano sit, etc
primary succession
final community after all vegetation has reached its peak
climax community
what do disturbances do to species richness
increase (diff stages of habitat, prevents pred overpop)
how an animals nervous system causes behavior
proximate causation
why did this animals behavior evolve, influence survival?
ultimate causation
signal in enviornment that triggers an animals behav
sign stimulus
sensory mechanism that detects signal
innate releasing mechanism
stereotyped response to stimuli
fixed action pattern
way org responds to stimuli in eviron
conversion of energy in environ to action potential, processing stimuli like light
3 proof of genetic basis of behav
artificial selection (mice maze, maze genes) mutation (mice/ fruit fly not mothers) hybridization (combine personality)
focus on how learning influences behavior
comparative pysch
learning w/ no assoc btwn 2 stimuli- like not paying attention to falling leaves
nonassoc learning (habituation, sensitization)
change in behav that involves assoc btwn stim and response
associative learning
paired presentation of stimuli to infl behav
classical conditioning (Pavlovian dogs)
animal assoc behav response reward or punishment
operant conditioning
what we learn is biologically influenced
learning preparedness, instinct
formation of social attachments and preferences during maturation
imprinting (filial, sexual)
instinct and learning/genetics in birds
choosing their own song
study of hormonal reg of behav
behav endocrinology
behav rhythms dependent on...
internal rhythms and external timers
24 hour rhythm
circadian rhythm
biological clock in humans made up of
SCN, influenced by light (secretion of melatonin)
yearly cycle rhythm
circannual, (hibernation,etc)
behav of one causes behav of another
stim-response chain
chemical messengers for comm. between conspecific indivs, sex attractions
animals w/ acoustic mating signals
bullfrog, bird
movement towards or away from stim
excitement from stim
processing info and responding in a way suggesting thinking
cognitive behav
animals use these to migrate
orientation and navigation
how does animals behav let it survive
survival value
study of how natural selection shapes behav
behav ecology
animals reprod success
natural selection favors individ with most efficient foraging, less energy to reap than to consume
optimal foraging theory
maintaining exclusive use of area for defense agst intrusion, as long as cost of defense is ok
set of behavs to max reprod success
repod strategy
behav in choosing a mate
mate choice
contributions of each sex to producing offspring
parental investment
competition for mating opportunity
sexual selection (intra and inter)
differing chars between sexes
sexual dimorphism
most animals go for healthy male to inc. gene reprod, but this says a deformed guy is better
handicap hypoth
mult women, men
polygyny, polyandry
helping another at ur expense
altruism (birds at the nest)
ev/nat sel process occurs for the good of the group, not indiv
group selection
partnership with mutual acts of altruism
reciprocal altruism (bats)
sel that favors altruism towards rels
kin selection (squirrels, birds)
division of labor in reprod, cooper care of brood and overlap of generations (castes)
males have 1 set chromosomes, female 2- sisters have more of their genes
which are less altruistic insects verts
verts (conflict and aggression)
water cycle
free, circ water from atm and ocean, evap. groundwater very important- deforestation= desert
carbon cycle
photosynth make it, hetero trops get it from plants, orgs. breath it out into atm. organic comps
nitrogen cycle
broken down by bacteria and fungie thru ammonification, denitrification.
phosphorous cycle
small amounts on rocks, to rivers, sediment, algae to fish to birds to shit
plants, algae and bact that capture light and make food
autotrophs (prim prod), dont forget decomposers, detritivores
animals, fungi, protists that eat stuff made by autotrophs
heterotrophs (primary and 2nd (eat animals) consumers)
trophic levels are feeding levels that make up the...
food chain, web
energy transfer depends on...
biomass of envi, amt of prod by autos and heteros, tons of energy lost. , amt of sunlight
in ec. pyramid, more indivs at hi or lo trophic level
lo. energy depletes with each level
why so few lions?
huge biomass, no predators, few of them.
weird effect of lions on deer on plants
trophic cascade
pos effects of species richness
stable biomass in bad conditions
factors promoting species richness
variety in climates, moderate production, spatial variety
why more species in tropics?
around longer. stable climate. less change. higher prod. with sun. variety of habs.
indiv response to env change
constrict blood vessels, fur, hibernate, inc oxygen flow, camels preserve water
equatorial region of moist air
3 major air currents!
earths rotation and heat gain on earth
localized climate due to temperature and shading
major community or org with characteristic apperance destib over wide area, defined by climate
richest ecosystem, few of each species. hot and moist
trop rainforest
grasslands, dry. seasonal rain, grazing. antelope, etc
no rain, nocturnal animals, camels, seasonal visitors
prairies, fertile..grazers. agricultural use
temperate grasslands
mild climate and rain in eurasia, us, and canada
temp deciduous forests
cold winter and dry period, nutrient poor soil in W US
temp evergreen forests
confierous trees, asian and N Am, cold winter and summer rain, wolvesm, lynx
open windy little precip, boggy. permafrost, wolves, caribou, lynx
shallow waters along continents coasts, lots of species, takes a beating, some exposed to air
neritic zone (littoral)
water above ocean floor, mostly plankton.
pelagic zone (limnetic)
ocean floor, thick blanket of mud
benthic zone (profundal)
ocean floor where light doesnt penetrate
abyssal zone
area in water with photosynth orgs due to light absorbtion
photic zone
hetertroph orgs in water, no light
aphotic zone
lakes with lots of organic matter
eutrophic lakes
lakes without organic matter and nutrients
oligotrophic lake
what wetlands are good for
support plants, inverterbrates, birds, water storage basins, VERY productive
species found in naturally 1 area
what humans do to screw up environment
overexploitation, introduce new species, disrupt eco relats, loss of gen variability, habitat loss (pollution, destruction)
when there are no animals left to preserve, we do this
habitat restoration
direct intervention into natural populations
captive propagation