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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
consumers that obtain energy by eating only animals
CARNIVORES
the main source of energy for life on Earth
SUN
a process that uses light energy to power chemical reactions that convert water and carbon dioxide to oxygen and glucose
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
a group of individuals belonging to the same species and living in the same area
POPULATIONS
another word for autotrophs
PRODUCERS
Links all the food chains in an ecosystem together
FOOD WEB
a group of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
SPECIES
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten
FOOD CHAIN
organisms in the second or third trophic level
CONSUMERS
different populations living together in a defined area
COMMUNITY
consumers that obtain energy by eating plants
HERBIVORES
the organism being eaten in predation
PREY
another word for heterotrophs
CONSUMERS
each step in a food chain or food web
TROPHIC LEVEL
the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
NICHE
a relationship from which both species benefit
MUTUALISM
example of mutualism
POLLINATION
any necessity of life
RESOURCE
the organism that does the killing and eating in predation
PREDATOR
the area where an organism lives
HABITAT
occurs when any two organisms attempt to use a resource in the same place at the same time
COMPETITION
when one organism captures on feeds on another
PREDATION
four processes involved in the carbon cycle
BIOLOGICAL: photosynthesis and respiration
GEOCHEMICAL: volcanic eruption
BIOGEOCHEMICAL: formation and use of fossil fuels
biological influences
BIOTIC
physical influences
ABIOTIC
the movement of nitrogen in the biosphere
NITROGEN CYCLE
the movement of carbon in the biosphere
CARBON CYCLE
the movement of water in the biosphere
WATER CYCLE
volcanoes releasing of carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere is a __ process
GEOCHEMICAL
the key element in all living organisms
CARBON
the process by which water changes from liquid to gas
EVAPORATION
the process by which water changes from gas to liquid
CONDENSATION
water falling from the sky in any form (ie. snow, rain)
PRECIPITATION
evaporation of water from the leaves of plants
TRANSPIRATION
all chemical substances an organism requires to live
NUTRIENTS
the way elements, compounds and other matter are passed from one organism to another in different parts of the biosphere
BIOCHEMICAL CYCLES
the process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia
NITROGEN FIXATION
the rate at which organic matter is created by producers
PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY
the substance that may be scarce and limit an organism's growth
LIMITING NUTRIENT
example of primary succession
AFTER VOLCANIC ERUPTION or AFTER GLACIAL MELT
when a disturbance changes an existing community without removing the soil
SECONDARY SUCCESSION
organisms that break down organic matter
DECOMPOSERS
one organism benefits and the other is harmed
PARASITISM
example of parasitism
TAPEWORMS
succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists
PRIMARY SUCCESSION
most common pioneer species
LICHEN
any relationship in which two species live close together
SYMBIOSIS
says no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE
example of secondary succession
ABANDONED FARMLAND or WILDFIRE
the series of predictable changes that occur in a community
ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
the first species to populate an area
PIONEER SPECIES
one species benefits and the other is unaffected
COMMENSALISM
example of commensalism
BARNACLES ON WHALES
organisms at the first trophic level
PRODUCERS or AUTOTROPHS
describe the energy flow in an ecosystem
SUN/ORGANIC COMPOUNDS --> AUTOTROPHS --> HETEROTROPHS
examples of autotrophs
PLANTS, ALGAE, CYANOBACTERIA
organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy
HETEROTROPHS or CONSUMERS
a consumer that eats both plants and animals
OMNIVORE
a group of ecosystems with the same climate and similar dominant communities
BIOME
a collection of all the organisms that live in a place and their nonliving surroundings
ECOSYSTEM
the process of using chemical energy (inorganic compounds) to produce carbohydrates
CHEMOSYNTHESIS
the study of interactions amon organisms and their environment
ECOLOGY
all the ecosystems on the entire planet
BIOSPHERE
organisms that make their own food from sunlight or inorganic compounds
PRODUCERS or AUTOTROPHS
dead plant and animal remains
DETRITUS
consumers that feed on dead plant and animal remains
DETRITIVORES