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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Ecology?
the study of the interactions of organisms with each other and with their physical environment
What is a population?
An interbreeding group of individuals
What is a community?
An interacting group of many species that inhabit a common area
What is an ecosystem?
A community of organisms together with the nonliving parts of the environment
What is biotic?
Living part
What is abiotic?
Non-living part
What is a biosphere?
all ecosystems together
What are autotrophes?
Producers-make own food via photosynthesis
What are heterotrophs?
Consumers that consume other organisms
Name the groups that Heterotrophs include:
Consumers: herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers and scavengers
Name the groups that Heterotrophs include:
Consumers: herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers and scavengers
What is the food chain?
A linear sequence revealing "who eats who"
Define: Tropic level
An organism's position in the food chain
Write the three levels of consumers:
Herbivores: primary consumers
Carnivores: secondary consumers
Tertiary consumers eat carnivores
True or false: energy is continually removed from an ecosystem
Where does the energy that drives the Earth's biosphere?
the sun
Define: Biomass
The dry weight of all organisms living in the ecosystem
True or false: Carnivore biomass is usually greater than herbivore biomass which is usually greater than plant biomass?
False: plant greater than herbivore than carnivore
True or false: Consumers always produce more energy than producers
True or false: energy becomes less and less available at higher and higher trophic levels
Define: Ten Percent Law
Each trophic level only passes on about 10% of the energy that was in the previous trophic level
True or false: materials such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and phosporous cannot be recycled?
False: must be recycled
Plants pull water from soil and release it as vapor through tiny holes in the leaves called what?
90% of all water that evaporates comes from where?
The continents
Where is much of the carbon in the biosphere located?
the oceans
Carbon in the biosphere that is located in the oceans is called_______, whereas the carbon found in the atmosphere is called___________
1. bicarbonation
2. carbon dioxide
True or false: each year, terrestrial producers convert 15% of the atmosphere CO2 into organic molecules?
False: 12%
Where are the largest reserves of carbon found?
Trapped in fossil fuels
What is one of the leading ways humans have returned the amount of CO2 into the carbon cycle?
Burning fossil fuels
True or false: nitrogen is the most abundant element in our atmosphere?
Nitrogen accounts for how much of the air we breathe?
78 %
What is the most important source for fixed nitrogen?
Nitryifing bacteria
What is the function of nitrifying bacteria?
Convert nitrogen gas to ammonia or nitrate for plants to use
What is the function of bone nitrifying bacteria?
Form a mutualistic relationship with plants
How do animals get rid of nitrogen waste?
Urea or uric acid
How do humans alter the carbon cycle?
Use of fertilizers
Acid rain
Name the two major adaptations consumers have for finding and eating their prey:
Name some characteristics of predators:
Swift, intelligent, acute senses and sharp teeth
Name some characteristics of herbivores:
Patient, and good digestive systems
List three weapons that the consumed have for defenses:
1. Camaflage
2. Chemical defenses
3. Coloration
Define: Batesian Mimicry
Mimic the warning colors of harmful species; mimicry in which a harmless species is protected from predators by means of its resemblance to a harmful or inedible species
Define: Mullerian Mimicry
Two or more equally dangerous species evolve similar colors or forms in order to represent similar dangers to their common predators
List and describe four ways organisms live together:
1. Symbiosis: two specied have intimate associations
2. Parasitian: species benefits at expense of other species
3. Mutialism: symbiotic relatonship between two species that mutually benefit
4. Commensalism: intimate relationship btwn 2 species that neither helps nor harms
Define: competitors
Use a resource in a way that limits the availablility if that resource to others
Define: the Competition Exclusion Principle
When two species compete directly for the same limites resources, the more efficient species will eliminate the other species
Define: Niche
the way an organism uses its environment
True or false: no two species can occupy the exact same niche in the same habitat indefinately
What is species richness?
The number of species in an ecosystem
What is succession?
The change in the number and kinds of organisms in a community over time
What is primary succession?
Invasion of a new environment
What is secondary succession?
Invasion of an environment which contains a previous communit that has suffered serious damage
What is a pioneer community?
A part of the 1st succession
What is a climax community?
Long-lived and occurs at the end of a succession
What are pioneer communities characterized by?
A species that:
1. flourish a disturbed area
2. breed rapidly
3. are short lived
What is a climax community characterized by?
Species that:
1. breed slowly
2. gradually take over undisturbed areas
3. are long lived
True or false: pioneery species change their environment in ways that allow colonization by succeeding species?
How does behavior develop?
From the interaction of genes and the environment
List the two types of behaviors:
1. innate
2. learned
What is innate behavior?
behavior that an animal engages in regardless of previous experience
What is learned behavior?
Serve a purpose only when performed at the proper place and time
What is the "sensitive period"?
Period of time during which an animal can learn a particular behavior pattern
What is "imprinting"?
Parental imprinting-chicks
List two ecological influences on behavior:
1. in the presence of predators, animals must alter behavior to increase chances of survival
2. the presence of competing species can also change feeding behavior
Define: agonistic behavior
Competetive behavior such as aggression, agressive appeasement and retreat
True or false: Some animals use agonistic interactions to establish dominance hierarchy
List three advantages of social behavior:
1. large groups more quickly spot predators than small groups
2. group of animals can cooperatively defend themselves
3. help in finding food
List a major disadvantage of social living:
1. must compete w/each other for food and other resources
All social insects have three common traits:
1. cooperate in raising young
2. few individuals reproduce
3. generation overlap
Who suggested the Theory of Kin Selection?
W.D. Hamilton
Define: Theory of Kin Selection
An individual increases its reproductive output by helping relatives and siblings are equally related to each other as they are to their parents
Deinfe: Altruism
A behavior that benefits others at a cost to the individual performing the behavior
True or false: few studies suggest kin selection as an explanation for altruism