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55 Cards in this Set

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What is ecology?
the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment
Who coined the term ecology?
ernst haeckel
Where does the word 'ecology' come from?
term derived from Greek word "Oikos"
Ecologists study what level of organization?
typically study intermediate scales
list the level of organizations from simple to complex
Biosphere
landscapes
ecosystems
communities
populations
species
genotypes
chromosomes
genes
what are ecologists most concerned about when they study individual through community levels? (especially regarding abiotic- biotic interactions)
?
at ecosystem and higher levels, how does the relationship between abiotic + biotic factors change?
you're starting to take in effect abiotic factors like weather and habitat
what is natural history?
scientific research of plants and animals
what is the relationship between ecology + natural history?
both study animals and plants,etc but ecology includes the effect of the environment on organisms. Ecology is a branch off of natural history
what is a biome?
broad groups divided based on life forms and species that tend to dominate in a given climate
how are biomes classified?
(what are the components)
location, climate, soils, major plant groups
what is soil?
natural body consisting of layers of primarily mineral constinuents
what are the general components of soil?
O, all organic
A, mostly organic
B, half/half organic material
C-parent material
what are the components of the O horizon?
organic material
what are organic compounds and where do they come from?
organic matter--living material that contains carbon
organic compounds--
what is humus?
any organic matter that has reached a point of stability
found in O and A horizons
what are inorganic compounds and where do they come from?
non-biological compounds
come from parent material
what are the characteristics of A horizon?
mostly organic matter
just below O horizon
darker than B horizon
what are the characteristics of B horizon?
half/half organic matter
less dark than A horizon
just above parent material
what are the characteristics of C horizon?
parent material
inorganic
at the very bottom of the earth
what is caliche? where is it found?
sedimentary rock
hardened deposits of calcium carbonate
ex. red rock
has a lot of salts in it
mostly inorganic matter
ex. Great Salt lake basin
on top! dried out!
why is parent material an important soil component?
it holds a lot of nutrients!!
why is particle size an important soil quality?
because depending on particle size-- water will either stay on top or sink to the bottom or nest in the soil!
why is water holding capacity important?
.
what are the factors that strongly influence soil structure/properties?
Hans Jenny Factors:
climate, organisms, topography, parent material, time
how does latitude effect temperature?
with higher latitude, the farther the rays have to travel and the more atmosphere they travel through-- so colder!
what are hadley cells and how are they related to latitude? rainfall patterns?
the two cells above and below the equator-- go the opposite direction.
once you go passed 30 degrees latitude, the hadley cells are not in effect.
a lot of rain above and below the equator because the hot air is rising and then as it cools it turns into rain
what is the coriolis effect?
.
why don't the major biomes exactly follow latitudinal climate patterns?
.
what are mountain biomes like?
.
what is actual evapotranspiration?
.
what features are part of the physical template of aquatic systems?
.
how doe light vary with depth in lakes and oceans?
.
what is the photic zone?
zone close enough to the surface that photosynthesis can occur
what is the aphotic zone?
depth in ocean or lake where there is little or no sunlight
no photosynthesis going on!
what does thermal stratification mean?
.
what is thermocline?
.
what is the epilimnion?
.
what is the hypolimnion?
.
what is the metalimnion?
.
what does chemical stratification mean?
.
how does oxygen vary with depth in lakes? oceans?
.
how does water move in the ocean?
.
where does upwelling occur?
.
how does lake water move?
.
what features of running water are important for structuring streams and rivers?
.
do streams and rivers experience thermal stratification?
.
what are coral reefs?
.
What are conformers?
answer
What are regulators?
answer
Why do organisms need to thermoregulate?
answer
What are the components of a general heat budget?
answer
what are poikilotherms?
ectothermic animals that manage to regulate their body temperature using the external environment. For instance, many reptiles and insects seek out sunny areas on cool days to heat up their bodies.
potential evapotranspiration
the total amount of evapotranspiration that would take place if there were enough water available.
ex. water evaporating out of a dish. eventually it will run out-- but the potential evapotranspiration is the same
What are the Hans Jenny's Factors?
climate
organisms
topography
parent material
time