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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are photosynthetic autotrophs?
use CO2 as carbon source and sunlight as energy
What are chemosynthetic autotrophs?
use inorganice molecules as source of carbon and energy
What are heteroptrophs?
Use organic molecules as sources of carbon and energy
What can affect how chlorophyll absorbs photons?
landscape, water, organisms can all change the amount and quality of light reaching an area!
Who uses C3 photosynthesis
most plants and algae-- most abundant on planet
Where does C3 take place?
mesophyll cell
Describe the C3 cycle?
leaf absorbs CO2 through stomata and goes into mesophyll

Co2-->PGA (C3 acid) 0--sugars --> RUBp--> PGA --> sugars

6x yield glucose
Who uses CAM photosynthesis?
succulent plants in aird and semi arid environments
when does carbon fixation ocur in CAM plants?
at night
What are the advantages and dis to CAM?
+ extremely high rates of water use
- low rates of photosynthesis
study me
CAM is like C4 but the stomata are open at night
Where does CAM take place?
mesophyll
what is a detritivores
feeds on non-living organic matter
Name the strategies of a prey
AVOID
HIDE
FLEE
TOLERATE
DEFEND
what are methods of DEFENSE?
fight back
associational defenses
structural defenses
chemical defenses
what are two levels of avoiding consumers?
temporally- deciduous trees flush leaves early in spring before herbivourous insects are present
2.) spatially- living where herbivore pressure is minimal
what % of plants tolerate consumers?
nearly all

- think grass
What is the nutrition of detritivores food?
rich in carbon and energy but poor in nitrogen
name three prey defenses specific to carnivore
aposomatice colorin
mullerian mimicry
batesian mimicry
what is mullerian mimicry?
HARMFUL-- co-mimicry of several species of noxious organisms
what is batesian mimicry?
NOT harmful-- mimic noxious species
explain how predators are selection agents for refined prey defense
1) usually eliminate more conspicuous members (less adaptive) first
2.) must catch and subdue prey-- size selection
STUDY ME
Limits on potential rate of energy intake by animals have been demonstrated by studying relationships between feeding rate and food availability
StUDY ME
limits on potential rate of energy intake by plants have been demonstrated by studying response of photosynthetic rate to photon flux density
describe photon flux and photosynthetic response curves
fast increase of photosynthesis with low fux density then slows with medium flux density and levels off at high photon flux density-- max photosynthetic rates
Define the optimal foraging theory
if supplies are limited, organisms cannat simultaneously maximize all life function and must therefore compromise between competing demands for resources and the principle of allocation
more abundant prey yields ______
larger energy return
in optimal foraging, what energy expenditures should be considered?
search for prey
handling time
define behavioral ecology
study of social relations and interactions between organisms and the environment mediated by behavior
define sociobiology
branch of biology concerned with study of social relations
define fitness
number of offspring (genes) contributed by an individual to future generations
Give five methods of asexual reproduction
mitotic division
budding
vegetative spreading
fission
parthenogenesis
what are two types of fission?
paratomy- forms new almost completely before detaching
architomy- will make new from any slice
what are two main goals of sex?
increase pop
create new genetic combos
what are the three main costs of sex?
mesiosis
recombination- outcrossing depression because some new combos may not be successfull
mating
what are the costs of mating?
sexual mechanicms (flowers)
mating behavior
injury inflicted by mate
disease
escaping from unwanted sex