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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
SINUS RHYTHM
E.C.G:
- All waves present and normal
- All intervals are of normal duration


* REGULARITY:
- Regular
* RATE:
- 60-100b/min
* TREATMENT:
- Nil
SINUS TACHYCARDIA
* E.C.G:
- All waves present and normal
- All intervals are of normal duration


* REGULARITY:
- Regular

* RATE:
- 100-150b/min

* CAUSES:
- Stimulants, stress, anxiety, haemorrhage, hypoxia, anaemia

* PATIENT PRESENTATION:
- Tachycardic, hypotensive, pale, diaphoretic, c/o palpitations

* TREATMENT:
- (If symptomatic) Rest, reassure, elevate legs, treat underlying cause
SINUS BRADYCARDIA
* E.C.G:
- All waves are present and normal
- All intervals of normal duration
* REGULARITY:
- Regular
* RATE:
- Less than 60b/min
* CAUSES:
- Athletic, hypothermia, dig toxicity, inferior MI (affecting SA node)
* PATIENT PRESENTATION:
- Hypotensive, pale, syncope, lethargy
* TREATMENT:
- (If symptomatic), treat underlying cause, Atropine 0.6mcg IV stat, pacemaker
ATRIAL FIBRILLATION
* E.C.G:
- Irregular baseline, P waves not visible
* REGULARITY:
- Irregular, QRS at irregular intervals
* RATE:
- 350b/min and above
* CAUSES:
- Common in older age, mitral valve disease, IHD, post MI, post heart surgery
* PATIENT PRESENTATION:
- Rapid irregular pulse, pulse deficit, pale, diaphoretic, hypotensive, nauseous
* TREATMENT:
- Verapamil, Digoxin, anti-coagulate, cardioversion
ATRIAL FLUTTER
E.C.G:
- P waves replaced by "flutter waves"- gives a ‘saw-tooth’ pattern
* REGULARITY:
- May be regular or irregular, depending on AV block
* RATE:
- 250-350b/min
* CAUSES:
- CAD, valve disease, pericarditis, hypoxaemia, cardiomyopathy
* PATIENT PRESENTATION:
- Hypotensive, pale, diaphoretic, rapid pulse, SOB
* TREATMENT:
- Verapamil, Digoxin, cardioversion, anti-coagulate
VENTRICULAR ECTOPICS
* E.C.G:
- Wide, bizarre QRS complexes, (may be uni-focal or multi-focal)
* REGULARITY:
- Irregular where ectopics occur
* RATE:
- Determined by underlying rhythm
* CAUSES:
- Stimulants, smoking, stress, anxiety, MI, cardiomyopathy, hypoxaemia
* PATIENT PRESENTATION:
- Hypotensive if Bigeminy or Trigeminy, may not be symptomatic
* TREATMENT:
- Nil, unless severe or multi-focal, observe for increasing frequency of ectopics
VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA
* E.C.G:
- QRS wide and bizarre
* REGULARITY:
- Usually regular (slightly irregular)
* RATE:
- 150-200b/min
* CAUSES:
- MI, hypoxia, acidosis, IHD, hypokalaemia, cardiomyopathy
* PATIENT PRESENTATION:
- Conscious or unconscious, pale, hypotensive
* TREATMENT:
- Conscious-antiarrythmic and cardioversion. Unconscious-DCCS and Lignocaine 50-100mgs IV
VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION
* E.C.G:
- "Fibrillatory" waves, no uniformity, coarse or fine
* REGULARITY:
- Irregular and uncoordinated
* RATE:
- 300b/min and greater
* CAUSES:
- Prolonged, untreated VT, AMI, IHD, electrocution, drug overdose, hypoxaemia
* PATIENT PRESENTATION:
- No cardiac output, unconscious
* TREATMENT:
- CPR, DCCS, ADVAVCED CARDIAC LIFE SUPPORT
ASYSTOLE
* E.C.G:
- Slightly wavy, but relatively straight line
* REGULARITY:
- Can’t be determined
* RATE:
- Can’t be determined
* CAUSES:
- AMI, drug overdose, untreated VF, hypoxia, advanced cardiac disease
* PATIENT PRESENTATION:
- No cardiac output, unconscious
* TREATMENT:
- DCCS, CPR, ACLS (Adrenaline), pacemaker