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86 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Authority is the right to order or ask others to do what you want them to do.
Behaviour Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)
BARS originated in BMod and emphasises behaviours that can be observed, learned and measured.
Behaviour Modification (BMod)
BMod targets for study the learned connection between behaviour and its consequences. It states that external or environmental consequences determine behaviour and de-emphasises the role of the individual in the motivation process. Both expectancy theory and BMod are process theories of motivation; expectancy theory is cognitive, BMod is behavioural (or deterministic).
Consistency refers to two or more ways of gathering performance data producing results which agree.
Contingency of Reinforcement
The connection between a behaviour and its consequence is called a contingency of reinforcement.
Cross-training is another popular variation (the other two being job enlargement and job rotation) on the anti-monotony theme. It is used in work teams to make members totally ‘interchangeable’.
Deficiency is one of the three major measurement problems that crop up in performance appraisal systems. It occurs when meaningful performance is ignored because the evaluation system fails to capture it.
Equity Theory
Equity theory describes the governance of the bond between rewards (work incentives) and performance by a process of social comparison. Perceived inequity represents a state of psychological imbalance. Both the compensation system and the job design system must function properly to ensure perceived equity.
Expectancy is the employee’s subjective belief that a given level of effort will lead to a first-level outcome on the job.
Expectancy Theory
The expectancy theory of motivation states that behaviour is always purposeful and goal directed and it can only be understood in terms of the probabilities that a given behaviour will lead to outcomes valued by the individual. This theory is individually based rather than team based. Both expectancy theory and BMod are process theories of motivation; expectancy theory is cognitive, BMod is behavioural.
Extroversion is defined as the need to obtain as much social stimulation as possible from the environment.
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
Fiedler’s contingency theory of leadership proposes that leader behaviour interacts with the favourableness of the situation to influence group performance (effectiveness). This is a situational leadership theory.
House’s Path-Goal Theory (PG)
The PG theory assumes that the leader’s main job is to clarify the path from subordinates’ effort and performance to the rewards that they value. The PG theory can be called a transactional theory because the leader exerts influence and the subordinates respond with effort and performance to obtain rewards. The PG theory is a situational theory and based on expectancy theory.
Horizontal Job Loading
Horizontal job loading by job enlargement, job rotation or cross-training does not deeply affect the employee’s higher-order growth needs: it does not profoundly affect self-actualisation. So, its beneficial effects are noticeable but temporary.
Hygiene Factors
Hygiene factors are elements of job context. They are contextural because they emphasise what is outside or ‘around’ the employee and his work. Hygienes are sources of extrinsic motivation because they are part of the job’s context.
Influence is a process of persuasion that affects the thoughts, feelings and behaviour of others.
Instrumentality is the personal belief in expectancy theory that first-level outcomes lead to second-level outcomes.
Intermittent Explosive Disorder
Intermittent explosive disorder connotes angry outbursts that are inconsistent with the demands of the situation.
Introversion is defined as avoidance of external stimulation in favour of internally oriented, contemplative activity – being alone with one’s thoughts.
Job Analysis
Job analysis is a set of procedures which can be used to identify the key tasks involved in specific jobs and the human qualities needed to perform these effectively.
Job Burnout
Job burnout is prolonged psychological withdrawal from work by employees who suffer from chronic work overload.
Job Characteristics Model (JCM)
The JCM indicates that the six job content factors determine employees’ three critical psychological states. The employee’s growth need strength has a moderating influence on the relationship between the employee’s job and his experienced work outcomes.
Job Challenge
Employees who seek out job challenges have a high need for achievement and are more satisfied when their jobs require intellectual or physical effort. Job challenge contributes to the level of job satisfaction.
Job Clarity
The extent to which employees understand what they are supposed to do. Job clarity contributes to the level of job satisfaction.
Job Depth
Job depth is an employee’s authority to select various job procedures to accomplish work.
Job Descriptive Index (JDI)
JDI is the most widely used measure of job satisfaction. It is a scale used to measure five major factors associated with job satisfaction: the nature of the work itself, compensations and benefits, attitudes towards supervisors, relations with co-workers, and opportunities for promotion.
Job Design
Job design refers to how work is structured and how much employees control their work decisions. It also covers work techniques, equipment and control procedures and employee participation in decision-making.
Job Dimensions
Six core job dimensions exist: Skill variety, task identity and task significance represent job range and they are active in job enlargement, job rotation and cross training. Autonomy, feedback and social opportunities make up elements of job depth and they are active in principles of job enrichment.
Job Enlargement
Job enlargement increases the number of work activities in a job to counteract employee boredom and the monotony that comes from over-specialisation.
Job Enrichment
Job enrichment is a philosophy that proposes that jobs should include hygienes (to prevent dissatisfaction) and motivators (to encourage performance and satisfaction). It works best for workers who have a high growth need strength and they believe they are stuck in routine and monotonous jobs.
Job Involvement
Job involvement is the degree to which employees identify with their job, participate actively in it and consider it to be a key determinant of their self-worth.
Job Range
Job range refers to the number of tasks an employee performs.
Job Rotation
Job rotation exposes workers to a variety of often-related and specialised jobs over time.
Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is not experienced by workers as seamless, all-encompassing concept; instead, they think of it as facets. These are: 1) satisfaction with the work itself, 2) satisfaction with pay, 3) satisfaction with fellow workers, 4) satisfaction with supervision and 5) satisfaction with promotions. The level of experienced job satisfaction is determined by job challenge, job clarity, supervision and incentives, which are all organisational factors.
Karoshi is a fatalistic Japanese expression that means to die of a heart attack or stroke on the job.
Leadership is an influence process where one individual guides the actions of another. Leaders transform and managers transact. Leadership research has advanced on three inter-connected, semi-distinct fronts: the trait approach, behavioural approach, and situational approach.
Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC)
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory states that the leader’s preferred style could be measured by his personal orientation toward his ‘least preferred co-worker’.
Line of Sight
Line of sight refers to clear pathways from excellent performance to valued rewards.
Locus of Control (Internal vs. External)
Locus of control is defined as an individual’s belief that one’s actions influence the outcomes one experiences in life. Locus of control has to do with perceptions of cause and effect relationships.
Machiavellism is the urge to influence others to achieve one’s personal ends. The ‘high Mach’ individual manipulates others to achieve personal gains in fluid, unstructured organisational circumstances.
The traditional field of management is defined as the process of planning, organising, leading, and controlling the human, material and financial resources of an organisation. Newer definitions of management stress the importance of the manager as an ‘enabler of employee performance’ instead of the ‘activities’ approach.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Management by objectives is an organisational application of goal-setting theory.
Motivators are job-centred characteristics; they are also called intrinsic job factors or content factors.
Motives (achievement, power, greed, altruism) initiate, sustain and channel behaviour.
A need is an experienced state of deficiency (a sensed imbalance) that pushes one’s behaviour. Examples of needs are hunger, thirst and belongingness.
Organisational Behaviour (OB)
Organisational behaviour is the study of the behaviour and attitudes of people in organisations. Its focus is on human work behaviour and attitudes which contribute to (or detract from) the effectiveness and productivity of the organisation.
Organisational Commitment
Organisational commitment is the strength of an employee’s devotion to his employer. It has three components: 1) belief in and acceptance of the organisation goals and values, 2) willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organisation and 3) desire to maintain membership in the organisation.
Organisational Culture
Organisational culture is the shared beliefs and values which produce stable norms for employee behaviour.
Organisational Design (OD)
Organisational design is the product of a series of executive decisions about the best organisational arrangements to achieve the firm’s strategic goals. These decisions cluster in four key areas: 1) division of labour, 2) allocation of authority, 3) departmentalisation, and 4) span of control. Organisational designs can be mechanistic or organic.
Organisational Structure
Organisational structure is a description of the types of coordination used to organise the actions of individuals and departments that contribute to achieving a common aim. Organisational structure must follow and match organisational strategy.
Performance Appraisal System
An organisation’s performance appraisal system is supposed to generate valid, quantitative information about the quality and quantity of employees’ work. This data is then used to make informed, objective decisions about promotions, pay rises, training and other human resources decisions.
Performance Management
Performance management is a continuous process of identifying, measuring and developing performance in organisations by linking each individual’s performance and objectives to the organisation’s overall mission and goals.
Politics refers to the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organisation or to obtain sanctioned ends through non-sanctioned (illegal) means.
Power is the ability to alter the behaviour of others while being able to avoid having one’s own behaviour modified in undesirable ways.
Psychological Contract
The psychological contract consists of an implicit set of assumptions held by individuals and their organisations about what each side has to offer the other and can expect to receive in return.
Quality of Work Life (QWL)
QWL tries to balance employee life needs and the demands of work, e.g. by constructing jobs that are more meaningful, challenging and interesting. Examples are the four-day work week, job-sharing, telecommuting, flextime.
Rewards, Extrinsic
Extrinsic rewards are those that the organisation provides based on employee performance and effort. Examples of extrinsic rewards are pay rises, promotions, supervisor praise and recognition, job status symbols and job security.
Rewards, Financial (Direct and Indirect) vs. Non-Financial
Direct compensation includes base salary or wages, performance bonuses, overtime and holiday pay, share options and pensions: these last two are deferred compensation. Indirect compensation is given to an employee because of his job level and not because of his performance. Examples are top executive personal protection programmes, loans at low interest rates, personal services and perquisites. Non-financial compensation is rewards that are also not performance contingent; i.e. they are not earned. In this realm we see the full measure of executive creativity – especially in countries with very high income tax rates. Examples are chauffeurs, personal aides, beautifully appointed offices, or top-of-the-line communications gear.
Rewards, Intrinsic
Intrinsic rewards are those that the employee experiences internally as the job or work unfolds. For example, feelings of competence, pride, determination to excel, and craftsmanship are intrinsic rewards for a job well done.
Reliability is one of the three major measurement problems that crop up in performance appraisal systems. Reliability refers to the constancy and stability of PA results under the same evaluators and similar circumstances of administration. Unreliability stems from numerous origins, many of which are related to the perception problems and PA skills of the evaluator(s).
Role Ambiguity
Role ambiguity is defined as a lack of clarity or lack of understanding of job or work demands.
Role Conflict
Role conflict is defined as having two sets of work expectations which are antagonistic.
Rucker Plan
The Rucker plan measures the difference between the sales income from goods produced and the cost of the materials, supplies, and outside services consumed in the production and delivery of that output. Payroll costs are all employment costs paid to, because of, or on behalf of, the employee group participating in the Rucker Plan. Comparable to the Scanlon Plan, the Rucker Plan sets a labour cost standard in a base period.
Scanlon Plan
The Scanlon plan targets labour costs and tries to reduce them in relation to a historical average or base level. They are also are called gainsharing plans because the gains associated with cost savings are shared between the owners of the company and labour.
Scientific Management (SM)
Scientific management concerns itself with the physical aspects of work. The primary SM tools of job design are time and motion studies, differential piece-rate pay systems and the scientific selection of workers.
A coherent psychological structure (value system) to judge the appropriateness of our behaviour and the behaviour of others.
Self-Directed Team (SDT)
A self-directed team is a formal work groups made up of members who are jointly responsible for team leadership and goal accomplishment.
Self-efficacy is the unshakable belief held by some people that they have what it takes to succeed.
Self-esteem is a general feeling of self-worth that is not anchored to particular capabilities or abilities. Its external component consists of inputs such as social status, recognition, prestige and appreciation from others. The internal component of the esteem need consists of challenge and autonomy.
Socially Acquired Needs
Three socially acquired needs exist and they are 1) need for achievement, 2) need for affiliation and 3) need for power.
Socio-Technical Systems Theory (STS)
STS integrates the social and interpersonal aspects of work with the technical and knowledge demands of work.
Stability means that performance measuring items should yield the same scores at various evaluation periods if the performance characteristic or work requirement has not changed.
Theories of Motivation, Content
A content theory of motivation specifies those human needs which activate behaviours aimed at need reduction. Both content and process motivation theories can be cognitive theories that view the individual as the origin of motivated behaviour.
Theories of Motivation, Process
A process theory of motivation explains how behaviour is stimulated, directed, sustained, or stopped. Both content and process motivation theories can be cognitive theories that view the individual as the origin of motivated behaviour.
Type A Behaviour
An action-emotion complex that is present in a person who is aggressively involved in chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more in less and less time, and if required to do so, against the opposing efforts of other things and other persons
Valence is defined as the personal attractiveness of different outcomes.
Validity is one of the three major measurement problems that crop up in performance appraisal systems. Validity is the meaningfulness of the measuring components in a PA system.
Values are enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence. Examples are social status (terminal), freedom (terminal), happiness (terminal), competence (instrumental), courage (instrumental), independence (instrumental).
Vertical Job Loading
Vertical job loading refers to those changes which influence the planning and doing components of work. When an employee experiences more control, autonomy, challenge and direct responsibility over work outcomes, then the job has been vertically loaded. It has increased in job depth.
Work Motivation
Work motivation is referred to as the direction, effort and persistence of employee behaviour on the job.
How do you write an impressive answer to a course essay question?
1. Introduce core concept(s) that relate to the question (could be one or more)
2. Define key terms in the core concepts (to show examiners that you fully understand the elements of the concepts at play in the question)
3. Mention one or more ways in which the core concepts can interact (suggests to examiners that you understand course concepts and how they are interconnected (thinking and synthesizing)
4. Specify one or two managerial or org implications that occur to you based on how you have integrated concept(s) for the question at hand (to highlight your skills in problem diagnosis, solution articulation and solution implementation)
5. Wrap up with a meaningful example (from your experience perhaps).
Growth Need Strength
A person who is highly motivated by challenging work (high nAch) and who prefers to make independent job decisions which they hope will lead to a promotion.
Learning Organisation
A learning organisation is the term given to a company that facilitates the learning of its members and continuously transforms itself. Learning organisations develop as a result of the pressures facing modern organisations and enables them to remain competitive in the business environment. A learning organisation has five main features; systems thinking, personal mastery, mental models, shared vision and team learning.
Organisational Effectiveness
Organisational effectiveness is the concept of how effective an organisation is in achieving the outcomes the organisation intends to produce.
Justice, Distributive
Distributive justice, also known as economic justice, is about fairness in what people receive, from goods to attention. Its roots are in social order and it is at the roots of Communism, where equality is a fundamental principle. If people do not thing that they are getting their fair share of something, they will seek first to gain what they believe they deserve. They may well also seek other forms of justice.
Justice, Procedural
The principle of fairness is also found in the idea of fair play (as opposed to the fair share of distributive justice). If people believe that a fair process was used in deciding what it to be distributed, then they may well accept an imbalance in what they receive in comparison to others. If they see both procedural and distributive injustice, they will likely seek restorative and/or retributive justice.