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11 Cards in this Set

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selection bias
- occurs when two groups vary in ways other than the main factors being investigated in the study
Measurement bias
- occurs when measurement of clinical outcome is consistently dissimilar among pt groups because of factors not accounted for my researchers
- age? sex? other things
Confounding bias
- occurs when two factors are associated with each other, and the eefect of one on a clinical oucome is confused with the effect of the other
- can coexist with selection bias
- gambling causes CA example
Chance
- random variation
- results are as likely to be abnormally high as low
- "normal" lab values describe 95% of population
Internal Validity
- how true are the results of the study for the population studied?
- was it correctly done?
External Validity
- How much do the results of the study apply in other settings
- AKA- generalizability
Four steps used when developing a research question
- pt or problem
- intervention
- comparison intervention
- outcomes
Descriptive Statistics
- describe a population of people or measurements
Inferential stats
- determine how unusual a result or a difference between results is
Reliability
- reproducibility, precision
- extent to which repeated measurements are similar
Validity
- accuracy
- does the measurement represent what it is supposed to do?