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15 Cards in this Set

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exposure
any condition which provides an opportunity for an external environmental agent to enter the body through various transport mechanisms
vectors (different than routes)
air (lungs)
food (gi tract)
soil (gi tract/skin)
water (gi tract/skin)
distinction between exposure and dose
exposure is "outside" the body
dose is "inside" the body
exposure parameters
time (acute vs. chronic)
location (outdoors vs. indoors)
vector (route)
exposure studies reveal that people come into contact with toxic volatile organic compounds and pesticides more _____
indoors
agent is in the ____
vector
time activity patterns
what did the agent do in the environment with time?

what did the host do in the environment with time?
homogeneous vs. heterogeneous exposers
mixed exposure scenario
difficult to quantitate putative agent
factors influencing biodistribution
same exposure may not yield same dose (underlying genetics lead us to all handle chemicals differently)
exposure assessment
characterization of the exposure setting
identification of the exposure pathway (vector)
quantification of exposure

exposure = intensity x frequency x duration
(how much x how often x how long)
assessing exposure and health: the science of quantifying this relationship
exposure assessment: the quantification of the human engagement with environmental contaminants (WHY: to evaluate the potential relationship between exposure to the environmental contaminants and health problems)

health assessment in the context of environmental exposures: the quantification of health effects that may be related to specific exposures (WHY: to evaluate the health impact of engaging in specific activities or with environmental contaminants)
patterns of exposure
continuous
intermittent
cyclic
random
concentrated
heirarchy of exposure data or surrogates
1. quantitative personal dosimeter measurements; biomarkers of internal dose and biologically effective dose

2. quantitative ambient measurements in vicinity of residence or activity

3. quantitative surrogates of exposure (e.g. estimates of drinking water)

4. residence or employment in proximity of source of exposure

5. residence or employment in general geographic area
surface sampler
draws in particle-laden air in the same manner as a conventional vacuum cleaner. the instrument collects the dust by circulating the air within a specially designed cyclone. the rotating current of air slows near the bottom of the swirling vortex, and suspended particles drop into a small bottle for later analysis
personal sampler
records the particles and volatile organic compounds to which the wearer is exposed over the course of several days. particles are trapped by forcing air through a filter with an electric pump, whereas volatile compounds are collected by letting air diffuse through a membrane onto charcoal disks