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197 Cards in this Set

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What are the global water program's (GWP) goals?
1. Develop integrated, interdisciplinary solutions to water challenges
2. Train interdisciplinary graduate and professional leaders in the water sector
Who was Abel Wolman?
Water treatment expert who worked with chemist Linn Enslow to standardize methods used to chlorinate Baltimore and other cities water supplies
How much of the earth's water is useable by humans?
0.3%
How much water is consumed in the US?
the average person uses 65 to 80 gallons per day
Flushing toilets: 10 to 20 gallons per person per day
Not a lot is actually ingested by humans
What is the overall basic water requirement?
Minimum standard to meet four basic needs is 50-100 liters per person per day
-Drinking
-Sanitation
-Bathing
-Cooking
Where is most of the freshwater used?
AGRICULTURE
What are sources of water pollution?
Industry (inorganic and organic chemicals, thermal, particulate, color)
Municipalities & onsite wastewater treatment (liquid sewage, sludge)
Agricultural
What is the biggest polluter?
AGRICULTURE
-Eroded sediment
-Fertilizers--Eutrophication
-Pesticides
-Animal wastes (CAFOS)
What is the Clean Water Act?
-Enacted in 1972
-Goal of act is to make all waters fishable and swimmable
-Two parts: more stringent requirements on industries and cities to meet zero discharge of pollutants; federal assistance for municipal wastewater treatment construction
What is the Safe Water and Drinking Act?
-Protect public health by regulating the nation's water supply
-authorizes USEPA to set legally enforceble standards to protect against naturally-occurring and man-made contaminants that may be found in drinking water.
What can decrease the huge diarrhea burden?
improved water access and sanitation
What are the three groups of microorganisms?
Bacteria, parasites, and viruses
Two concepts to keep in mind related to microorganisms?
-size of microorganism
-resistance to environmental degradation and chemical inactivation
What is the order of microorganism resistance to disinfection and environmental degradation?
Parasites < Viruses << Bacteria
What is the treatment of drinking water order?
1. Coagulation
2. Flocculation
3. Sedimentation
4. Filtration
5. Disinfection
6 Distribution
What can decrease the huge diarrhea burden?
improved water access and sanitation
What are the three groups of microorganisms?
Bacteria, parasites, and viruses
Two concepts to keep in mind related to microorganisms?
-size of microorganism
-resistance to environmental degradation and chemical inactivation
What is the order of microorganism resistance to disinfection and environmental degradation?
Parasites < Viruses << Bacteria
What is the treatment of drinking water order?
1. Coagulation
2. Flocculation
3. Sedimentation
4. Filtration
5. Disinfection
6 Distribution
What is it called when chemicals are added to the water to create a coagulant?
Coagulation
What chemical is most commonly used in the US during coagulation?
AL2(SO4)3:18H20
Aluminum
Highly positively charched Al+++ attracts the negatively charged suspended particles in the water and together forms a gelatinous mass called flor.
What is the process of rapidly mixing called?
Flocculation
What is the process of slowly and gently stirring the water to enable the finely divided floc to agglomerate into larger particles that will rapidly settle called?
Sedimentation
How are the sediments in the water divided during the water purification process?
larger particles in the water (pathogens) are enmeshed in the floc. Ionic, colloidal and suspended particles are absorbed to the surface. Dissolved contaminants are NOT removed.
In the US, what kind of filtration is commonly used?
Rapid sand filtration
-Filters become clogged after 12-72 hours of filtration and must be backwashed to clean the filter
What is it called when chemicals are added to the water to create a coagulant?
Coagulation
What is the process of removing infectious material to a level such that disease cannot be detected?
Disinfection!
What chemical is most commonly used in the US during coagulation?
AL2(SO4)3:18H20
Aluminum
Highly positively charched Al+++ attracts the negatively charged suspended particles in the water and together forms a gelatinous mass called flor.
What are the drinking water disinfectants?
Chlorine
Ozone
Ultraviolet Radiation
What is the process of rapidly mixing called?
Flocculation
What are the pros and cons about using chlorine as a disinfectant?
Pros: cheap, good disinfectant, provides residual
Cons: unstable, forms disinfection by products (DBP) that are potentially carcinogenic
What is the process of slowly and gently stirring the water to enable the finely divided floc to agglomerate into larger particles that will rapidly settle called?
Sedimentation
What are the pros and cons about using ozone as a disinfectant?
Pros: good disinfectant, fewer DBP
Cons: expensive, no residual
How are the sediments in the water divided during the water purification process?
larger particles in the water (pathogens) are enmeshed in the floc. Ionic, colloidal and suspended particles are absorbed to the surface. Dissolved contaminants are NOT removed.
In the US, what kind of filtration is commonly used?
Rapid sand filtration
-Filters become clogged after 12-72 hours of filtration and must be backwashed to clean the filter
What is the process of removing infectious material to a level such that disease cannot be detected?
Disinfection!
What are the drinking water disinfectants?
Chlorine
Ozone
Ultraviolet Radiation
What are the pros and cons about using chlorine as a disinfectant?
Pros: cheap, good disinfectant, provides residual
Cons: unstable, forms disinfection by products (DBP) that are potentially carcinogenic
What are the pros and cons about using ozone as a disinfectant?
Pros: good disinfectant, fewer DBP
Cons: expensive, no residual
What are the pros and cons about using ultraviolet radiation as a disinfectant?
Pros: effective on cryptosporidium, no DBPs, no storage problems
Cons: no residual, interference by solids and turbidity
Why is chlorine used as a primary disinfectant?
-Chlorine can effectively inactivate many types of microorganisms
-Chlorine provides a strong residual, meaning that unused chlorine can protect the water from additional microbial contamination)
What happens when chlorine reacts with the naturally occurring dissolved organic material (humics) in water?
Potentially carcinogenic by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs) are generated
-MAJOR efforts are underway to reduce DBPs while still providing adequate microbial protection.
What is the process where maintaining a residual disinfectant is critical?
Distribution
Bottled water is regulated by the _____
FDA
Municipal water is used as a source for ___ of the bottled water sold in the US.
35%
What are some of the repercussions of drinking bottled water?
-17 million barrels of oil were used to produce water bottles
-2.5 million tons of carbon dioxide in one year`
What is wastewater treatment?
The aim of sewage treatment is to improve the quality of wastewater to the point that it can be discharged into a waterway without seriously disrupting the aquatic environment or causing human health problems in the form of waterborne disease.
What is domestic wastewater comprised of?
human feces
urine
"graywater"--washing, bathing, meal prep
What are the wastewater components of concern?
pathogens
suspended solids
BOD
toxic chemicals
nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous)
What is Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)?
amount of dissolved oxygen consumed by microorganisms during the biochemical oxidation of organic (carbonacceous BOD) and inorganic (ammonia) matter.
-When bacteria consume organic matter in sewage, large amounts of dissolved oxygen are rapidly used up-- this can result in fish kills
-BOD is an indication of how much organic material is present in the water, with low BOD indicating good water quality and high BOD reflecting polluted conditions
What is the modern wastewater treatment?
Primary treatment
Secondary treatment
Tertiary treatment
What is primary treatment?
physical process that involves the separation of large debris, followed by sedimentation
What is secondary treatment?
biological oxidation process carried out by microorganisms
What is tertiary treatment?
Physicochemical process that removes additional componants
What are sewers systems that are designed to collect rainwater runoff, domestic sewage, and industrial wastewater in the same pipe?
Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs)
What is leakage of raw sewage from wastewater pipelines or pumping stations prior to reaching a treatment facility called?
Sanitary Sewage Overflows (SSOs)
What are characteristics of Persistant Organic Pollutants (POPs)?
-Remain in the environment for a long time
-Resist chemical and biological degradation
-Can travel long distances
-Bioaccumulate and biomagnify up the food chain
-Have found their way into every living organism on earth
-Have long half lives in people
What are examples of POPs?
Pesticides:
-Aldrin
-DDT/DDE
-Toxaphene
-Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
Is DDT regarded as a highly toxic pesticide?
NO
What was DDT used for?
controlling insects and harmful mosquitoes that carry malaria
What were the two uses of PCBs before being banned?
1. Insulating fluid in transformers and capacitors
2. Lubricant
Do PCBs bioaccumulate in fish and other animals?
Yes
What are the health effects of PCBs?
-Cause cancer in animals and are designated as probable human carcinogens
-immune system, reproductive system, and children's intellectual development
-limit immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus
What does the term dioxins refer to?
family of chemical compounds that are unintentional byproducts of certain industrial, non-industrial and natural processes, usually involving combustion
-Dioxins are stable, resistant, and bioaccumulate in the food chain.
What are the risk characterization sources of dioxins?
-Waste incineration****
-Pulp and paper industry
-Traffic exhaust
-Cigarette smoke
-High-temperature industrial processes
What is the diverse spectrum of toxic effects of TCDD in animals?
-Wasting syndrome and death
-Chloracne
-Hepatotoxicity
-Reproductive effects
-Birth Defects
-Endocrine disruption
The biochemical and toxicological responses to TCDD and other dioxins are initiated by their _____ interaction with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).
reversible
Which incident showed the truly diverse spectrum of toxic effects of TCDD in animals?
1976 Seveso Italy Accident
What was the air spray program called in Vietnam, in which herbicides were spread along the fire bases to keep the wire clear of vegetation?
Operation Ranch Hands
What is Friendship Village?
A residential treatment center for children and veterans affected by Agent Orange.
What is the Poison Squad?
Harvey Wiley was an experimenter who gave Georgetown medical students food with borax, sulfuric acid, formaldehyde, etc to see what would happen
What is the Poison Squad?
Harvey Wiley was an experimenter who gave Georgetown medical students food with borax, sulfuric acid, formaldehyde, etc to see what would happen
What happened to food safety over the past 100 years?
From now on, company had to adequately prove that a drug was safe and effective.
What happened to food safety over the past 100 years?
From now on, company had to adequately prove that a drug was safe and effective.
What does the Food and Drug Administration oversee?
-All domestic and imported food sold in INTERSTATE commerce, including shell eggs, but not meat and poultry.
-Bottled water
What does the Food and Drug Administration oversee?
-All domestic and imported food sold in INTERSTATE commerce, including shell eggs, but not meat and poultry.
-Bottled water
What does the US Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) oversee?
-Domestic and imported meat and poultry and related products (stews, pizzas, frozen foods)
-Processed egg products, but not shell eggs
What does the US Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) oversee?
-Domestic and imported meat and poultry and related products (stews, pizzas, frozen foods)
-Processed egg products, but not shell eggs
What is melamine?
-Used to make urea
-Flame retardant
-Causes renal failure
-Thickener, elasticity and meat substitute
-Very inexpensive
What is melamine?
-Used to make urea
-Flame retardant
-Causes renal failure
-Thickener, elasticity and meat substitute
-Very inexpensive
Melamine has been found in a lot of _____ products and caused health controveries
Milk
What method measures protein content in foods?
Kjeldahl
Melamine has been found in a lot of _____ products and caused health controveries
Milk
What's wrong with the Kjeldahl method?
Archaic methodology
What method measures protein content in foods?
Kjeldahl
What is aflatoxin?
-Contaminant of improperly stored food crops
-Produced by few strains of a mold
-carcinogenic to animals at non-toxic levels
-lethal to animals at high levels
-Causes stunting
What's wrong with the Kjeldahl method?
Archaic methodology
What is aflatoxin?
-Contaminant of improperly stored food crops
-Produced by few strains of a mold
-carcinogenic to animals at non-toxic levels
-lethal to animals at high levels
-Causes stunting
Where are aflatoxins found in human foods?
GRAIN
corn
wheat
rice
peanuts
Where are aflatoxins found in human foods?
GRAIN
corn
wheat
rice
peanuts
Early evidence suggests that ochratoxins had a role in the etiology of ________.
Balken Endemic Nephrapathy (BEN)
-kidneys are extremely reduced in size and weight and show fibrosis.
What is aristolochic acid?
-grows in the same fields as wheat and the seeds co-mingle with the wheat berries and becomes incorporated into bread flour
What was the Dietary Supplements Act of 1994?
removed authority from FDA to regulate and test dietary supplements
What happened with the Eleven Blue Men?
Saltshaker had sodium nitrite instead of sodium chloride
What kind of cancer can PhIP produce?
Prostate
Colon
Breast
What is acylamide?
Carcinogen: damages testes, nervous system
used for water treatment, flocculants, contact lenses, and permanent press fabrics
In what product is acylamide found the most?
Kettle potato chips
What is clostridium botulinum?
-commonly found in soil that grow best in low oxygen
-inactivated by chlorination; destroyed by high temperature cooking
-home-canned foods with low acid content: green beans, beets, corn
What is botulinum toxin?
BOTOX
most poisonous substance known
paralysis
What are the different social costs of food-borne illness?
costs to individual
industry costs
public health costs
A salmonella outbreak occurred from _______.
Schwann's ice cream
What is listeria monocytogenes?
-grows in unpasteurized soft cheese and milk
-flu-like symptoms, spontaneous abortions
What is staphylococcus aureus?
causative bacteria from acne, boils, hang nails, etc
What are factors that affect microbial growth in food?
-nutrient availability
-moisture content
-oxygen-reduction potential
-temperature
-pH
What are the two top predominant contributing factors associated with confirmed food-borne outbreaks?
improper holding temperature and poor personal hygiene
What are the 7 principles of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)?
1. Analyze hazards
2. Identify critical control points
3. Establish preventive measures with critical limits for each control point.
4. Establish procedures to monitor the critical control points.
5. Establish correctie actions to be taken when monitoring shows that a critical limit has not been met
6. Establish procedures to verify that the system is working properly
7. Establish effective recordkeeping to document the HACCP system.
What is a "farm to the fork" approach?
-on farm agriculture
-transportation
-Food preparation & handling
-Food processing
-Food service
-Consumer handling and use
What is the main source to exposure to inorganic arsenic worldwide?
Drinking water
What are sources of arsenic exposure?
-Food
-Inhalation
-Tobacco
-Water
Arsenic is cleared from urine in ___ phases
3
What is an arsenic biomarker?
Urine
What is the first known human carcinogen?
Arsenic
What kind of cancer can arsenic cause?
Skin, lung, bladder cancer
What are non-treatment options to eliminate arsenic in water?
-Alternative water sources
-Blending water sources
-Low cost and no residuals compared to treatment options
What are water treatment options to eliminate arsenic in water?
-Absorption media
-Coagulation microfiltration
-Reverse osmosis
Based on epidemiological research, high levels of exposure to arsenic can cause...
cancer
respiratory disease
cardiovascular disease
diabetes
What is radiation with sufficient energy to eject electrons from atoms?
Ionizing radiation
What are radionuclides?
-atoms that spontaneously undergo radioactive decay
-emit radiation upon decay
-are always "on"
What is radiation with sufficient energy to eject electrons from atoms?
Ionizing radiation
What are machines?
-Electron and x-ray sources
-can be switched on and off
What are radionuclides?
-atoms that spontaneously undergo radioactive decay
-emit radiation upon decay
-are always "on"
What are alpha particles?
doesn't come out other side because concentrates all energy on sheet of paper
-if it's emitted in the body, it penetrates cells, but it readily gives energy so they get large dose
What are machines?
-Electron and x-ray sources
-can be switched on and off
What are beta particles?
Travels further (not very penetrating)
What are alpha particles?
doesn't come out other side because concentrates all energy on sheet of paper
-if it's emitted in the body, it penetrates cells, but it readily gives energy so they get large dose
What are gamma rays?
very penetrating, it'll pass through clothing. pass through body with no interaction.
What are beta particles?
Travels further (not very penetrating)
What is external irradiation?
-Radiation is outside the body
-Most risk from x rays or gamma rays (are able to penetrate into the body)
What are gamma rays?
very penetrating, it'll pass through clothing. pass through body with no interaction.
What is internal irradiation?
-Radiation source is inside the body
-Most risk from alpha and beta particles (deposit a lot of energy over short distances)
What is external irradiation?
-Radiation is outside the body
-Most risk from x rays or gamma rays (are able to penetrate into the body)
What is deterministic ionizing radiation effects?
Disaster (nuclear power plant--> radioactive particulate matter)
-Severity is a function of dose
-Threshold exists
(skin reddening, mental and growth retardation, cataract formation)
What is random ionizing radiation effects?
-Risk is a function of dose
-No threshold
-Example: cancer
What is internal irradiation?
-Radiation source is inside the body
-Most risk from alpha and beta particles (deposit a lot of energy over short distances)
What is deterministic ionizing radiation effects?
Disaster (nuclear power plant--> radioactive particulate matter)
-Severity is a function of dose
-Threshold exists
(skin reddening, mental and growth retardation, cataract formation)
What is random ionizing radiation effects?
-Risk is a function of dose
-No threshold
-Example: cancer
What's the difference between fossil fuel power plant with a nuclear power plant?
Where heat comes from
-Reactor with fuel rods
fossil fuel doesn't care about water, while nuclear fuel cares about it to prevent from overheating
What is nuclear fission?
nuclear reaction in which an atom splits into 2 'fission fragments' and gives off energy
What happened in Fukashima Nuclear power plants in Japan?
the remaining heat of the fuel was cooled by power from emergency generators. the subsequent tsunami disabled the emergency generator.
What will happen if we take nuclear power off the table?
prevent the global community from acheiving long-term gains in the control of carbon dioxide emissions.
What are the four unresolved problems of nuclear energy?
1. high relative costs
2. perceived adverse safety, environmental, and health effects
3. potential security risks stemming from proliferation
4. unresolved challenges in long-term management of nuclear wastes
What is risk?
Probability x consequences
What is risk-benefit analysis?
risk of an activity vs the benefit of that activity
What is risk-risk analysis?
the risk of an activity vs. the risk of not doing that activity
What are the inputs of a farm?
pesticides
fertilizers
irrigation
fossil fuels
What are the outputs of a farm?
waste
contamination
product
What is the goal of farming?
increase yield at lowest cost
What is "good food"?
Healthy
Green
Fair
Affordable
(Humane)
What is the energy used in today's food system?
Oil
Natural gas
Electric energy
Biofuel production
Food system is fully ____ dependent.
Oil
What is energy intensive and key source of greenhouse gas emissions?
nitrogen fertilizers
What is the gravest natural resource shortage you've never heard of?
Phosphorus
-Non-substituionable; nonrenewable
-
What is happening with soil?
Erosion, desertification, acidfication, salinization, loss of soil organic matter
What are healthy soils?
-Resilient to drought
-Sequester more carbon
-Reduced erosion
-Healthier plants
What can happen with fertilizers?
crops use only 1/2 to 1/3 and the rest go to runoff
-Eutrophication
What accounts for the highest greenhouse gas emissions from food in the US?
red meat and dairy (48%)
What gas is 25x global warming potential of carbon dioxide and exists in manure cesspits and rice paddies?
Methane
What gas is 298x global potential of CO2, stays in atmosphere for 114 years, and nitrogen-based fertilizers is a top source?
Nitrous oxide
What is the comparison between CAFO vs grass fed?
CAFO: More energy and more inorganic fertilizers
Grass-fed: more enteric emissions (CH4)
What are the factors that predict walking?
-Good trails and sidewalks
-Nearby destinations
-Greenery
-Other people walking
-Safety
What are solutions to get more people walking?
Healthy community design (density, mixed land use, activity centers, housing diversity)
-Placement of food stores, medical clinics, other essential services
-Law enforcement & maintenance
-Healthy transportation policy
-Transportation equity
-Collaboration
What is living in a building with nearby trees associated with...
-Knowing and greeting neighbors
-Acknowledging and helping neighbors
-Less psychological aggression
-Less violent behavior
What are the contributors to psychosocial stress in communities?
-Crowding
-Poor quality housing
-inadequate access to healthy food and recreational opportunities
-family turmoil and violence
What is a healthy home?
home designed, constructed, maintained, or rehabilitated in a manner that supports the health of residents
What are the 7 principles of healthy homes?
1. keep your home dry
2. keep your home clean
3. keep your home pest-free
4. keep your home safe
5. keep your home contaminant-free
6. Keep your home ventilated
7. keep your home maintained
What are some environmental asthma triggers?
pets
pollen
dust mites
cigarette smoke
mold
cockroaches
What are examples of chemicals in the home?
-Pesticides (food products)
-Metals (lead paint, mercury contaminated foods)
What are the pros and cons of CFL light bulbs?
-Energy efficient
-Less expensive
-Reduces air and water pollution
-High quality light
-Versatile

CONTAINS MERCURY
Breathing a lot of radon can put you at risk for _____.
Lung cancer
Where does particulate matter come from in homes?
Cigarette smoking
Cooking
Malfunctioning combustion appliances
Non-vented combustion appliances
wood-burning appliances
candles
Where does carbon monoxide come from?
-Incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (vehicles, boilers, furnaces)
What does carbon monoxide do?
-Interferes with oxygen transport in blood by binding to hemoglobin
-Causes headaches, fatigue, cardiovascular disease, and central nervous system disorders
What is a gas that is emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels such as gas stoves, is a lung irritant, and increases risk of respiratory infections?
Nitrogen Dioxide
Why are cockroaches hard to get rid of?
females have 300 babies
Where are the allergens for cockroaches located?
feces, stomach juices & dead body parts
Certain molds are ____, meaning they can produce toxins (specifically ______)
toxigenic; mycotoxins
What is a greenish-black mold, in which constant moisture is required for its growth?
stachybotrys chartarum
What are some tips for a green home?
-Reduce pesticide use
-Use less energy
-Recycle
What are the components of a livable future?
-minimizing use of non-renewable resources
-sustainable use of renewable resources
-keeping within absorptive capacity of local and global sinks for waste
-keeping within absorptive capacity of local and global sinks for waste.
What is the earth as a fishbowl?
Solar energy comes in, ecosystem made of natural resources, energy resources, and nature's services, and heat goes out
What are nature's services?
maintenance of biodiversity
purification of air and water
protection from sun's harmful UV rays (ozone)
Think _____, but act ______.
Globally, locally
What is the maximum number of organisms that a habitat can support and sustain without degrading the environment?
carrying capacity
What happens when the carrying capacity is exceeded, resulting in degradation fo the environment followed by population decline?
Overpopulation
I=P*A*T
Impact= population X affluence X technology
What are the Principal determinants of health worldwide?
pollution
poverty
poverty
What are the seven principles of sustainability?
think long-term
understand systems
recognize limits
protect nature
transform business as usual
practice fairness
embrace creativity
There is no "health" without....
WATER
What are the direct effects of climate change on crop production?
temperature
precipitation
CO2 levels
What are the indirect effects of climate change on crop production?
plant pests
plant diseases
OZONE
What are the global issues?
population increase
global warming
land degradation
water availability
food security
stratospheric ozone depletion
Acid rain
loss of biodiversity
This term characterizes changes in environmetnal risks that happen as a consequence of economic development in the less developed regions of the world.
Environmental Risk Transition
Where does land degradation come from?
deforestation
overgrazing
over cultivation
desertification
poor irrigation practices
What is the name of the lake that experienced salination?
Aral Sea
no more fishing/the land is uninhabitable
In what aquifer is the water table falling down?
Ogallala aquifer in Nevada
What is acid rain?
SULFURIC ACID!