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32 Cards in this Set

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What are the three objectives of first aid?
Save life, prevent further injury, and prevent infection.
State the three methods of controlling bleeding.
1. Direct pressure
2. Elevation
3. Pressure points
4. Tourniquet (as a last resort)
What are the three objectives of first aid?
Save life, prevent further injury, and prevent infection.
Identify an example of a pressure point.
A pressure point is a place where a main artery to the injured part lies near the skin surface and over a bone.
Describe the symptoms of shock.
Symptoms include vacant or lackluster eyes, shallow or irregular breathing, cold, pale skin, nausea, and weak or absent pulse. Individuals usually faint do to the poor supply of oxygen to the brain.
Define shock.
Shock is a disruption of the circulatory system.
Describe the treatment for shock.
Treatment is to lay the victim down with the feet elevated 6-12 inches. Cover them to maintain body heat. Reassure and calm the victim, if conscious.
Describe the three clasifications of burns.
First degree - mildest, producing redness, increased warmth, tenderness and mild pain.

Second degree - red and blistered skin; severe pain.

Third degree - destroyed tissue, skin and bone in severe cases. Severe pain may be absent due to nerve endings being destroyed.
State the symptoms for heat exaustion.
In heat exhaustion there is a serious disturbance of blood flow to the brain, heart and lungs. The skin is cool, moist, and clammy ad the pupils dilated and normal or subnormal body temperature. Usually the victim is sweating profusely.
State the treatment for heat exaustion.
Move the victim to a cool or air conditioned area; loosen clothing; apply cool wet cloths to the head, groin, and ankles; fan the victim; do not allow the victim to become chilled; if the victim is conscious, give a solution of one teaspoon salt dissolved in a liter of cool water and transport to a medical facility.
State the treatment for heat exaustion.
Move the victim to a cool or air conditioned area; loosen clothing; apply cool wet cloths to the head, groin, and ankles; fan the victim; do not allow the victim to become chilled; if the victim is conscious, give a solution of one teaspoon salt dissolved in a liter of cool water and transport to a medical facility.
State the symptoms of heat stroke.
A very serious condition caused by a breakdown of the sweating mechanism of the body. The victim is unable to eliminate excessive body heat build up. Symptoms may include hot and/or dry skin, uneven pupil dilation, and a weak, rapid pulse.
State the treatment for heat stroke.
Reduce the heat immediately by dousing the body with cold water. Apply wet, cold towels to the body and move the victim to the coolest possible place. Maintain an open airway. Place the victim on his/her back with shoulders raised slightly. Place cold packs or towels around the victim's shoulders and neck. Place additional cold packs on the ankles and groin area. Use a fan if available. A cold water bath is very helpful.
What is an open fracture?
An "open" or "compound" fracture is one in which there is an open wound in the tissue or skin. The bone may be protruding thru the skin.
What is a closed fracture?
A "closed" or "simple" fracture is one which is entirely internal, that is, the bone is broken, but there is no break in the skin.
Esplain Personnel rescue as applied to electrial shock.
The rescue of a person who has received an electric shock is likely to be difficult and dangerous. Extreme caution must be used, or the rescurer may also be electrocuted. YOU MUST NOT TOUCH THE VICTIM'S BODY, WIRE, OR ANY OTHER OBJECT THAT MAY BE CONDUCTING ELECTRICITY. Look for the switch, first, and turn off the current immediately. If you cannot find the switch, try to remove the wire from the victim with a dry broom, handle, branch, pole, oar, board or other non-conducting object. It may be possible to use a dry rope or dry clothing to pull the wire away from the victim.
Explain treatment as applied to personal shock.
Administer artificial ventilation immediately after freeing the person from the wire if the electric shock caused breathing to stop. Check the pulse since electric shock may cause the heart to stop. If you feel no pulse start CPR immediately. Get the victim to a medical facility immediately.
Describe the methods for clearing and obstructed airway.
Stand behind the victim and wrap your arms around the victim's waist. Grasp your wrist and place the thumb side of your fist against the victim's abdomen, above the navel and just below the rib cage. Give 4 quick upward thrusts to the victim.
describe the effects of hypothermia
A general cooling of the whole body caused by exposure to low or rapidly falling temperature, cold moisture, snow or ice. The victim may appear pale and unconscious, and may even be taken for dead. Breathing is slow and shallow, pulse faint or even undetectable. The body tissues feel semi-rigid, and the arms and legs may feel stiff. First aid consists of bringing the body temperature to normal. The patient should be wrapped in warm blankets in a warm room. Do not give him hot drinks or other stimulants until he has regained consciousness. Get medical attention immediately.
Describe the effects of superficial frostbite.
Ice crystals forming in the upper skin layers after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower.
Describe the effects of deep frostbite.
Ice crystals forming in the deeper tissues after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower. Treatment is to get the victim indoors, rewarm the area by placing them in warm water or with hot water bottles. Other methods include placing them under the armpits, against the abdomen, or between the legs of a buddy. Never rub the frostbite area. Seek medical attention immediately.
what is the name of the pressure poiont located in the jaw?
Facial artery.
what is the name of the pressure poiont located at the temple?
Superficial temporal artery.
what is the name of the pressure poiont located at the coller bone?
Subclavian artery.
what is the name of the pressure piont located at the neck?
Common carotid artery.
what is the name of the pressure poiont located in the inner upper arm?
Brachial artery.
what is the name of the pressure poiont located in the inner elbow?
Brachial artery.
What is the name of the pressure point located in the wrist?
Radial/Ulnar artery.
What is the name of the pressure point located in the upper thigh?
Femoral artery.
What is the name of the pressure point located in the groin?
Iliac artery.
What is the name of the pressure point located in the knee?
Popliteal artery.
What is the name of the pressure point located in the ankle?
Anterior/posterior tibial artery.