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10 Cards in this Set

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State the primary mission of the following aviation communities
HC


Helicopter Combat Support - Rotary Wing

They perform duties such as plane guard,
sea-air rescue, mail delivery, and personnel transfer

Aircraft: H-1, H-3, C-HH-46D, CH-53E

b. HCS

Helicopter Combat Support Special Squadron- Rotary Wing

Provides dedicated deployable combat rescue detachments in
support of aircraft carrier and amphibious operations for quick
reaction contingencies.

Aircraft: HH-60H

c. HM

Helicopter Mine Countermeasures - Rotary Wing

Provides aerial mine hunting and minesweeping by deploying into
and towing through the water, sleds designed to detect or
clear minefields.

Aircraft: CH/RH-53, MH-53

d. HS

Helicopter Antisubmarine - Rotary Wing

Used for carrier based anti-submarine warfare, plane guard,
search and rescue and logistics. RegNav flies the SH-60F
Oceanhawk and reserves fly the SH-3H Sea King.

Aircraft: SH-3, SH-60F

e. HSL

Helicopter Antisubmarine Light

Fly smaller helicopters from ships such as DDG's or FFG's.
They also perform search and rescue and logistics. RegNav
flies SK-60B Seahawk and reserves flies SH-2G Sea Sprite.

Aircraft: SH-2G, SK-60B

f. HT

Helicopter Training

Provides basic and advanced training of student Naval Aviators
in rotary wing aircraft.

Aircraft: TH-57

g. VAQ

Tactical Electronic Warfare - Fixed Wing

Tactically exploits, surpresses, degrades and decieves enemy
electromagineic defensive and offensive systems including
communication, in support of air strike and fleet operations.
The EA-6B Prowler is used from carriers and EP-3A is land
based.

Aircraft: EA-6B, EA-7, EP-3A

h. VAW

Carrier Airborne Early Warning - Fixed Wing

Carrier based and provide early warning against weather,
missiles, shipping and aircraft.

Aircraft: E-2C

i. VC

Fleet Composite - Fixed Wing

Perform duties such as utility and air services for the fleet
such as simulations and target towing.

Aircraft: TA-4J, S/UH-3A, CH-53E, VP-3A

j. VF


Fighter - Fixed Wing

Fighter squadrons are used against aircraft and ground
installations to defend surface units. They escort attack
aircraft and give close air support to landing forces. They
use maximum firepower with speed.

Aircraft: F-14, F-16N, T-38

k. VFA

Strike Fighter - Fixed Wing

Employed for both fighter and attack missions.

Aircraft: F/A-18

l. VMFA

Marine Fighter Attack - Fixed Wing

Marine Corps Strike Fighter squadrons employed for both
fighter and attack missions.

Aircraft: F/A-18, AV-8B

m. VP

Patrol - Fixed Wing

Land based squadrons that perform anti-submarine warfare,
anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, reconnaissance
and mining.

Aircraft: P-3

n. VQ

Fleet Air Reconnaissance - Fixed Wing

Electronic warfare support including search for, interception,
recording, and analysis of radiated electromagnetic energy.
Selected squadrons serve as elements of the Worldwide Airborne
Command Post System and provide communications relay services.

ES-3, EP-3, E-6, EC-130

o. VR

Logistics Support - Fixed Wing

Transport of personnel and supplies.

Aircraft: C-9, C-12, C-20, CT-39, C-130, C-131

p. VRC

Carrier Logistics Support - Fixed Wing

Transports personnel and supplies including carrier onboard
delivery aircraft such as the C-2 Greyhound or US-3

Aircraft: C-2, US-3

q. VS

Carrier Antisubmarine Warfare - Fixed Wing

Perform surface search and sea control. Referred to as "Sea
Control" squadrons even though their letter designation is VS.
Note: As of 1998 VS no longer is employed in the ASW role.
Aircraft: S-3

r. VT

Training - Fixed Wing

Provide basic and advanced training for student naval aviators
and flight officers.

Aircraft: T-2, TA-4, T-34, T-44, T-47, T-45

s. VX/VXE

VX - Air Test and Evaluation - Fixed Wing

Tests and evaluates the operational capabilities of new
aircraft and equipment in an operational environment. They
develop tactic and doctrines for their most effective use.

Aircraft: A4M/T, TA-4J, A-6, AV-8, F/A-18A/B,
S-3A/B, P-3A/C, UH-1N, AH-1J/T/W,
SH-2F, SH-3H, SH-60B/F, OV-10A/D

VXE - Antarctic Development - Fixed Wing

Supports operation Deep Freeze.
Aircraft: LC-130, UH-1H
Identify the mission of the following naval aircraft
a. AV-8 Harrier
- Fighter attack


b. C-130 Hercules - Logistics support

c. C-2 Greyhound - Carrier logistics support

d. C-20 - Logistics support

e. C-9 Sky Train - Logistics support

f. EA-6B Prowler - Tactical electronic warfare

g. E-2 Hawkeye - Airborne early warning

h. C-12 Huron - Logistics support

i. E-6 Mercury - Fleet air reconnaissance

j. F/A-18 Hornet - Fighter/attack

k. F-14 Tomcat - Fighter


l. H-2 Seasprite - Helicopter antisubmarine light

m. H-3 Sea King - Helicopter antisubmarine

n. H-46 Sea Knight - Helicopter combat support

o. H-53 Sea Stallion - Helicopter mine countermeasures

p. SH-60B Seahawk - Helicopter antisubmarine light

q. SH-60F Oceanhawk - Helicopter Anti-Submarine

r. HH-60H Seahawk - Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) and Special Warfare (SpecWar) Support

s. P-3 Orion - Patrol

t. S-3 Viking - Carrier antisubmarine warfare

u. TA-4 Sky Hawk - Training

v. T-2 Buckeye - Training

w. T-45 Goshawk - Training

x. UH-1N Iroquois Helicopter combat support

y. T-34 Mentor - Training

z. T-44 Pegasus - Training

aa. F-5 Tiger II - Fighter

bb. AH-1 Cobra - Helicopter combat support
State the mission of each of the following classes of aviation capable ships
a. AE - Ammunition Ship

They operate with replenishment groups to deliver ammunition and missiles to ships at sea. These ships are handle all types of missiles. They carry two H-46 helicopters for vertical replenishment and support.

b. AO/AOE - Oilers/Oiler and Ammunition Support Ships

AO: These ships carry fuel, jet fuel, and other petroleum products. They operate with replenishment groups adn deliver their cargo to ships at sea. They can service from both sides of the ship simultaneously.

Replenishment at sea enables the fleet to remain at sea and to make successive strikes without returning to base for fuel, ammunition, or supplies.

AOE: The largest and most powerful auxiliary ship in the Navy. AOE ships carry missiles, fuel, ammunition and general cargo. They can also carry refrigerated cargo and supplies. They carry two H-46 helicopters for vertical replenishment and support.

c. CG - Guided Missile Cruiser

These ships serve provide protection against surface and air attacks, and gunfire support for land operations. They have a large cruising range and are capable of speeds over 30 knots. Some cruisers are capable of conducting antiair warfare, antisubmarine warfare, and antisurface ship warfare at the same time. They carry a LAMPS Mk III SH-60B helicopter.

d. CV/CVN - Carrier/Nuclear Powered Carrier

Carriers are designed to carry, launch, retrieve and handle combat aircraft quickly and efficiently. It can approach the enemy at high speed, launch planes, recover them, and retire before its position can be determined. Attack carriers are excellent long-range offensive weapons and are the center of the modern naval task force or task group.

CV's use boilers for their power plant, while CVN's use nuclear reactors.

There are currently 12 aircraft carriers. One, the U.S.S. Ronald Reagan, is under construction. All but 3 are nuclear powered. These include the John F. Kennedy, U.S.S. Constellation, and Kitty Hawk. CV's use boilers for propulsion.

e. DD/DDG - Destroyer/Guided Missile Destroyer

Multipurpose ships used in any kind of naval operation. Fast ships with a large variety of armament and little or no armor. They depend on their speed and mobility for protection. They operate offensively and defensively against subs and surface ships. They can take defensive action against air assaults. They provide gunfire support for amphibious assaults. They can preform patrol, search and rescue missions, if needed. They can accomodate two SH-60B or 2 SH2G helicopters.

f. FFG - Guided Missile Frigates

Frigates are used for open-ocean escort and patrol. They resemble destroyers in appearance, but are slower, have only a single screw, and carry less armament. They can carry two SH-60B helicopters.

g. LCC - Amphibious Command Ship

Provides accomodations and command and communication facilities for various commanders and their staffs. They can serve as a command ship for an amphibious task force, landing force, and air support commanders during amphibious operations. They are the most modern and capable command facilities afloat.

h. LHA - Amphibious Assault Ship

These ships are able to embark, deploy, and land a Marine battalion landing team by helicopters, landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and combinations of these methods. They are versatile and combine the same features of the Amphibious Assault ship (LPH), Amphibious Transport Dock (LPD), Amphibious Cargo Ship (LKA), and Dock Landing Ship (LSD) in a single ship.

i. LHD - Amphibious Warfare Ship

They are designed based on that of an Amphibious Assault Ship, but are intended to be convertible from an Assault Ship to an Anti-submarine Warfare ship with Harrier fighters for ground assault.

j. LPD - Amphibious Transport Dock

Combines the features of a Dock Landing Ship (LSD), with the features of an Amphibious Assault Ship (LPH). They can transport troops and equipment in the same ship. It has facilities for 8 helicopters.
These are among the largest amphibious ships in the world.
They are primary landing ships, resembling small aircraft carriers, designed to put troops on hostile shores.

k. LPH - Amphibious Assault Ship

See below item letter (n.)

l. LSD - Dock Landing Ship

See below item letter (o.)

m. MCS - Mine Countermeasures Support Ship

See below item letter (p.)

n. LPH - Amphibious Assault Ship (Helicopter)

Designed to embark, transport, and land 1,800 troops and their equipment via transport helicopterss in conjunction with a beach assault. They can also assist with antisubmarine warfare.

o. LSD - Dock Landing Ship

Dock Landing Ships support amphibious operations including landings via Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC), conventional landing craft and helicopters, onto hostile shores.
In order to launch craft, the LSD must have the well flooded for the craft to move out on their own power. It has one CH-53 helicopter landing spot.

p. MCS - Mine Countermeasures Support Ship

They provide command, control and support ship for mine countermeasures operations.
There is only one of these in the naval inventory - the USS Inchon
Identify the primary mission of the following non-aviation capable ships:
a. AD - Destroyer Tender

Despite their title, destroyer tenders service a variety of ships besides destroyers. Destroyer tenders provide a mobile base and intermediate level maintenance support facilities for destroyers, cruisers and frigates.
Ship used to provide base facilities for destroyer type combat vessels. Provides, accommodation for flag staff, ships crews, light repair, training and resupply facilities.

b. AFS - Combat Stores Ship

Provides a mixture of combat stores (ammunition and the like) and general stores such as food.

c. ATF - Fleet Ocean Tugs

Provide the U.S. Navy with towing service, and when augmented by Navy divers, assist in the recovery of downed aircraft and ships.

d. ARS - Rescue and Salvage Ship

Render assistance to disabled ships, provide towing, salvage, diving, firefighting and heavy lift capabilities.

e. ASR - Submarine Rescue Ship

Serve as surface support ships for deep submergence rescue vehicles (DSRV's) during submarine rescue operations.

f. AR - Repair Ship

A conversion of a ship that has been modified to provide structural repairs to a damaged vessel.

g. AS - Submarine Tender

Ship used to provide base facilities for submarines. Provides, accommodation for flag staff, ships crews, light repair, training and resupply facilities.

h. MCM - Mine Countermeasures Ship

Avenger class MCM ships are designed as mine hunter-killers capable of finding, classifying and destroying moored and bottom mines. The last three MCM ships were purchased in 1990, bringing the total to 14 fully deployable, oceangoing Avenger class ships

i. MHC - Coastal Mine Hunters

These ships use sonar and video systems, cable cutters and a mine detonating device that can be released and detonated by remote control. They are also capable of conventional sweeping measures.

j. PC - Patrol Craft

These ships provide coastal patrol and interdiction surveillance. These ships also provide full mission support for Navy SEALs and other special operations forces.

k. SSBN - Ballistic Missile Submarine (Nuclear propulsion)

Strategic deterrence has been the sole mission of the fleet ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) since its inception in 1960. The SSBN provides the nation's most survivable and enduring nuclear strike capability.

l. SSN - Submarine (Nuclear propulsion)

Attack submarines are smaller than ballistic missile submarines and do not, as a rule, stay at sea as long. The mission of these fast and silent SSNs include attacking enemy ships-- both surface and submarine and in supporting land-based campaigns.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Explain the following
Chemical warfare

Intentional use of lethal or nonlethal chemical agents to produce casualties; harass or temporarily incapacitate, and demoralize personnel; or contaminate or destroy areas, equipment, and supplies.
Note:
The 4 types of chemical warfare agents will be discussed in question 112.3 (below).

b. Biological warfare

Intentional use of living organisms to disable or destroy people or their domestic animals, to damage their crops, and/or to deteriorate their supplies.
As of this writing, large-scale biological warfare attacks by an enemy are as yet an untried weapon. As far as is it known, there has been no open attempt by any country to use this form of attack.
The earliest known use of biological warfare as a weapon in history had a profound impact. In the 14th century Tatar warriors catapulted the bodies of sick people over the walls of Caffa, a Black Sea port. The illness spread throughout the town.

Biological warfare elements are difficult to detect, and slow to identify.

Radiological warfare


Radiological warfare is the deliberate use of radiological weapons to produce injury and death in man
Describe the purpose of the following
MCU-2/P protective mask

The mask, or gas mask, is the most important piece of protective equipment against CBR agents. It protects your face, eyes, nose, throat and lungs. Inhaling CBR agents is much more dangerous than getting them on the outside of the body. Without filtration, a large amount of contamination could be inhaled in a short time. The mask filters the air, removing particles of dust that may be radioactive or contaminated; and it purifies the air of many poisonous gases. The mask does not provide oxygen, protection against smoke or against toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and ammonia; however, it may be used for emergency escape as a last resort.
b. Chemical protective overgarment

The overgarment is treated with chemicals that neutralize blister agent vapors and sprays, but do not stop penetration by liquid agents. It also gives limited protection against other types of CBR contaminants. The suit consists of trousers, hip-length jumper with attached hood, and associated gloves and foot coverings. Except in unusual circumstances, you do not have to wear outer wet-weather clothing over the CBR suit. The danger of heat prostration is significantly reduced. Wear wet-weather clothing during heavy seas. Wear the CBR suit for up to one hour in engineering spaces. Gloves afford hand protection against nerve and blister agent liquids and gases. Foot covers are worn over your own shoes. Boots come in 2 sizes and can be worn on either foot. They are made of black butyle rubber, are impermeable, and have a non-slip rubber sole.
c. Wet-weather clothing

Worn over other types of clothing, wet-weather clothing protects impregnated and ordinary clothing and skin from penetration by liquid agents and radioactive particles. It also reduces the amount of vapor that penetrates to the skin. Wet-weather gear, which includes a parka, trousers, rubber boots, and gloves, is easily decontaminated.
d. Atropine/2 Pan chloride (Oxime) autoinjector

Used for specific therapy for nerve agent casualties. Issued in automatic injectors for intramuscular injection self-aid or first aid.
e. IM-143 pocket dosimeter

The self-reading pocket dosimeter is an instrument about the size and shape of a fountain pen and comes in several ranges: 0 to 5, 0 to 200, and 0 to 600 roentgens; and 0 to 200 millroentgens. These instruments measure exposure to radiation over a period of time, not dose rates at any given time. By holding the dosimeter up to a light source and looking through the eyepiece, the total radiation dose received can be read directly on the scale. After each use, the dosimeter must be recharged and the indicator line set to zero.
f. DT-60 personnel dosimeter

Is in the Nonself-reading catagory; the DT-60 is the high-range casualty dosimeter, which must be placed in a special radiac comptuer-indicator to determine the total amount of gamma radiation to which the wearer has been exposed. Its range is 0 to 600 roentgens
List the 4 types of chemical casualty agents and their physical symptoms
Chocking agents

First used in World War I, these agents produce an action on the respiratory system that results in the accumulation of fluid in the lungs. This effect may lead to death. Exposure can produce immediate dryness of the throat, coughing, choking, tightness in the chest, headache, nausea, and watering of the eyes.
A mild exposure accompanied by immediate symptoms can cause fluid to accumulate in the lungs within 2 to 24 hours after exposure.
One example of a choking agent may be Chlorine CL, which is a yellow gas.
b. Nerve agents


As a group, nerve agents are probably the most effective because only small doses are needed to produce death.
Even in low concentrations, the pupils of the eyes may contract. Tightness of the chest may be noticed, which will increase deep breathing. Liquids penetrate the skin, and poisons the body.
A 1 to 5 minute exposure may cause difficulty with a person's vision.
Liquid concentrations of Nerve agents to the skin are a real hazard. Sweating and twitching of the muscles at the site of contamination may be noticed. Small amounts of liquid, left in contact with the skin, can cause death in a matter of minutes. A lethal dose would include getting liquid into the eyes, and inhaling concentrated vapors.
One example of a Nerve agent would be Sarin Gas. It is a colorless liquid, with almost no odor.
Sarin gas was used in 1994 and 1995 by a Japanese religious cult Aum Shinrikyo. Twelve people were killed in a Tokyo subway after the gas was released there. Click here to read an article on the subway event in Japan.

c. Blood agents


Blood agents interfere with the distribution of oxygen by the blood.
Symptoms of blood agents depend on the concentration of the agent, and duration of exposure. Typically either death occurs rapidly or recovery takes place within a few minutes after removal from the contaminated area.
After inhaling a blood agent, the victim begins to breathe deeply and has violent contractions after only 20 to 30 seconds. The heart can stop after only a few minutes.
Long exposure and low concentrations may result in damage to the central nervous system.
One example of a blood agent may be Hydrogen Cyanide, which is a colorless gas or liquid, and smells like bitter almonds.

d. Blister agents

Immediate exposure to blister agents produces no noticable symptoms. But exposure for more than half hour produces a gritty feeling in the eyes, then soreness, and a bloodshot look. Eyelids become red and swollen, and infections are frequent.
Burns caused by blister agents are particularily bad in moist areas of the body, such as in the armpits, groin, bends of elbows and knees. Intense itching and blisters may occur accompanied by swelling and stiffness.
The throat may be very sore, and pneumonia may develop.
If the entire body is exposed to blister agents, the victim usually goes into shock followed by nausea and vomiting.
One example of a blister agent would be mustard gas or liquid. Mustard liquid is dark yellow, and have a musty or fish-like smell
Describe the following types of nuclear explosions:
High altitude air burst


One in which the point of detonation is at an altitude in excess of 100,000 feet. Above this level, air density is so low that interaction of the weapon energy with the surroundings is markedly different from that at lower altitudes and varies with the altitude. High-altitude nuclear explosions create spectacular visible effects that can be seen both locally and at great distances. Detonation causes widespread disturbances in the ionosphere, which effects the propagation of radio waves and similiar electromagnetic radiations of relatively long wavelengths (EMP).
b. Air burst


Immediately after a nuclear explosion, a huge, intensely hot fireball is formed. An airburst is one in which the fireball does not touch the earth's surface. All materials within the fireball are vaporized. As the fireball rises, it cools to the point where the vapor condenses to form a highly radioactive cloud. At sufficiently low altitudes, the rising fireball creates strong circulating winds that suck up dust and other debris from the surface. This debris combines with the condensed vapor to form the familiar mushroom-shaped cloud. Detonation of the nuclear bomb creates a blast wave that travels out in all directions at an initial speed greater than the speed of sound. When the wave strikes the earth's surface, another wave is formed by reflection. At some distance from ground zero, the primary and reflected waves combine to form a reinforced blast wave. Pressure at the wave front, called overpressure, is many times that of normal atmospheric pressure and is what causes most of the physical damage. Overpressure decreases as distance from the blast increases. Initial radiation occurs within the first minute after an explosion; residual radiation occurs thereafter. The greatest danger from residual radiation is fallout or the return to earth of radioactive particles of the cloud. In an airburst, most of the particles are carried high into the air where they are scattered by the winds and returned to the earth slowly. Fallout from low-altitude airburst presents a greater hazard because the heavy particles of debris picked up from the surface settle rapidly and are highly radioactive, but the hazard is not so great as that from surface and subsurface bursts.
c. Surface burst

Produces the worst fallout. The fireball touches the ground. Vast amounts of surface material is vaporized and taken into the fireball. As the fireball rises, the debris is sucked up by the strong afterwinds. Much of this debris returns to earth as radioactive fallout. The area endangered by fallout is much larger than the area affected by heat and shock.
d. Shallow underwater burst

A fireball is formed, but is smaller than an airburst and normally is not visible. The explosion creates a large bubble or cavity which, upon rising to the surface, expels steam, gases, and debris into the air with great force. Water rushing into the cavity is thrown upward in the form of a hollow column that may reach a height of several thousand feet. When the column collapses, a circular cloud of mist, called the base surge, is formed around the base of the column. Practically all thermal radiation is absorbed by the surrounding water, but a highly destructive shock wave is formed and is many times greater than the blast wave from an airburst. large water waves are created, some reaching heights of 90 feet within a few hundred feet of the blast.
e. Deep underwater burst

Produce the same effects as the shallow underwater burst, but with more of the impact absorbed by the deep ocean currents. The visual effects will be less, but the amount of contaminated water will be greater.
Describe the following effects of nuclear explosions
Blast


Injuries caused by blast can be divided into primary injuries and secondary injuries. Primary blast injuries result from the direct action of the air shock wave on the body. The greater the weapon's size, the greater the blast wave's effective range will be, with an increase in casualties. Secondary blast injuries are caused by collapsing buildings and by timber and other debris flung about by the blast. Personnel may be hurled against objects or thrown to the ground. At sea, the shock wave produced by an underwater burst, can produce various secondary injuries.
b. Flash burn/blindness


Burns caused by a nuclear explosion are primary and secondary. Primary burns are a direct result of the thermal radiation from the bomb. Secondary burns are the result of fires caused by the explosion. Flash burns are likely to occur on a large scale as a result of an air or surface burst of a nuclear weapon. Thermal radiation travels in straight lines, so it burns primarily on the side facing the explosion. Under hazy atmospheric conditions a large proportion of the thermal radiation may be scattered, resulting in burns received from all directions. Depending on the size of the weapon, second-degree burns may be received at distances of 25 miles or more. The intense flash of light that accompanies a nuclear blast may produce flash blindness at a range of several miles. Flash blindness is normally of a temporary nature, though, as the eye can recover in about 15 minutes in the daytime and 45 minutes at night. A greater danger lies in receiving permanent damage to the eyes caused by burns from thermal radiation, which may occur 40 miles or more from the nuclear weapon.
c. Radiation

Radiation hazards are alpha and beta particles, gamma and neutron radiation. Alpha particles have little skin penetrating power and must be taken into the body through ingestion or cuts. Beta particles can present a hazard to personnel if the emitters of these particles, such as dust or dirt, come in contact with the skin or inside the body. Beta particles with enouth intensity will cause skin burns.
Gamma rays, which are pure energy, are not easily stopped. They can penetrate every region of the body. Gamma rays can pass right through a body without ever touching it. Gamma rays that do strike atoms in the body cause ionization of these atoms, which may result in any number of possible chemical reactions that damage the cells of the body.
Neutrons, which have the greatest penetrating power of the nuclear radiation hazards, create hazards to personnel when the neutron is captured in atoms of various elements in the body, atmosphere, water or soil. As a result of this neutron capture, the elements become radioactive and release high-energy gamma rays and beta particles. Initial radiation contains both gamma and neutron radiation. Residual radiation, our greatest concern, contains both gamma and neutron radiation.
d. Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP)

Produced by high altitude, air and surface bursts. The initial nuclear ionizing radiation will ionize the atmosphere around the burst point and produce the EMP, which will contain frequency components in the range from a few to several hundreds of kilocycles per second. The EMP has magnetic and electric field components which exist for only fractions of a second. The magnetic field component is significant inside the radius of the ionized atmosphere and can induce large currents in cables and long-lead wires. These large transient currents may burn out electronic or electrical equipment. The electric field component may also produce transient signal overloads and spurious signals on communication nets and in computer-driven systems. At ranges where ships suffer minor damage from other weapon effects, the major effect of the EMP is expected to be the tripping of circuit breakers and blowing of fuses in protective circuits. At close ranges, there is a good probability of permanent damage to electronic and electrical equipment. EMP can totally destroy entire phone and communication systems, radios, vehicle ignition systems, etc. Conventional aircraft exposed to it can lose all navigation, communication, and electronic flight control systems.
e. Blackout

The loss of lights or electrical power failure during a nuclear attack
Define/discuss Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP).
Defines the amount of protective CBR gear to wear or have readily availabe. There are several levels of protection.
MOPP 1:

Gas masks are issued to all hands and are kept at battle station. The gas masks are fitted for immediate use. An inventory of stowed chemical/biological defense equipment and supplies is conducted.

MOPP 2:

Gas masks are carried by each person onboard. Per-position decontamination supplies at decontamination stations. Set material condition ZEBRA (modified).

MOPP 3:

New filters are installed on the gas masks. Don Chemical Protective Overgarment smock with hood down, trousers, and overboots. Stow personal decontamination kit in the mask carrier. Stow chemical protective gloves and medical supplies in the jumper cargo pocket. Go to General Quarters. Set material condition ZEBRA. Fill pre-positioned canteens with potable water. Activate decontamination stations and Contamination Control Station (CCA) for operability. Post detection and monitoring teams. Post and monitor detection equipment materials in accordance with the ship's Chemical, Biological, Radiological bill. Activate the CMWD, Counter Measure Washdown System, intermittently.

MOPP 4:

Don gas mask and secure the hood over the head and around the mask. Don gloves. Initiate continuous monitoring of detection equipment. Set condition Circle William (security of air vents). Activate CMWD system continuously.
The levels are set to protect against overheating from wearing protective gear for long periods of time.