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90 Cards in this Set

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Define Inertia
The willingnes of an object to remain at rest or to continue in motion unless acted upon by an outside force.
Define Acceleration.
The rate of change of the speed of and/or velocity of matter with time.
Define Speed.
The rate of movement or motion in a given amount of time. Only used when rate of movement is meant.
Define Velocity.
The quickness or speed of an object in a given time and direction.
Define Newton's First Law of Motion (Inertia)
An object at rest will remain at rest or an object in motion will remain in motion at the same speed until acted upon by an outside force.
Define Newton's Second Law of Motion (Force)
An object moving w/ uniform speed is acted upon by an external force, the change of motion, or acceleration, will be directly proportional to hte amount of force and inversely proportional tothe mass of the object being moved.
Define Newton's Third Law of Motion (Action and Reaction)
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Define Bernoulli's Principle.
A fluid flowing through a tube reaches a constriction/narrowing of the tube, the speed of the fluid increases and its pressure is decreased.
1 knot equals...
1.1 mph
What is a Small craft wind warning?
Harbor and inland waters, 33 knots or less. Lower threshold set by local authority.
What is a Gale warning?
Harbor, inland waters & ocean areas for winds 34-47 knots.
What is a Storm warning?
Harbor, inland waters & ocean areas for winds 48 knots or greater.
What are Tropical Cyclones?
Systems of cyclonically rotating winds characterized by rapid decrease in pressure and increase in winds toward the center of the storm. Size from 60 nautical miles to 1000.
What is a Tropical Depression?
Warning for land, harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds of 33 knots or less.
What is a Tropical Storm?
Warning for land, harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds of 34-63 knots.
What is a Hurrican/Typhoon?
Warning for land, harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds of 64 knots or greater.
What is a thunderstorm?
Small scale storms invariably produced by a cumulonimbus cloud and always accompanied by lightening and thunder.
What is a tornado?
A violently rotating column of air, usually in the form of a funnel, extending from a thunderstorm cloud to the ground.
Winds of a tornado can reach...
100 to 250 knots, although their winds have never been measured directly.
What is a thunderstorm warning?
Thunderstorms are within 3 miles of an airfield or in the immediate area.
What is a sever thunderstorm warning?
T-storms w/ wind gusts up to 50 knots or greater and/or heail of 3/4" in diameter or greater is forecast to impact the warning area.
What is a tornado warning?
Tornadoes have been sited or detected by RADAR in or adjacent to the warning area or have strong potential to develop in warning area.
What is lift in aerodymanic terms?
Force that acts in an upward direction to support the A/C in the air and counteracts the effects of weight. Must be greater or equal to weight if flight is to be sustained.
What is weight in aerodynamic terms?
The force of gravity acting downward on the aircraft and everything on the aircraft.
What is drag in aerodynamic terms?
The force that tends to hold an aircraft back. Caused by the disruption of air about the aircraft. Resists motion.
What is the logitudinal axis in aerodynamic terms?
Imaginary line running down through the center of the aircraft between the nose and tail. Axis about which roll occurs.
What is the laterl axis in aerodynamic terms?
Imaginary reference line running parallel to the wings and about which pitch occurs.
What is the vertical axis in aerodynamic terms?
Imaginary reference line running fromthe top to the bottom of the A/C about which yaw occurs.
What are the 3 primary movements of the aircraft about the axis?
Pitch, yaw and roll.
Define Yaw.
The motion of a aircraft about its vertical axis. The drift or right/left movement of the nose of the A/C.
Define Pitch.
Movement of the aircraft about its lateral axis. The up and down motion of the nose of the aircraft.
Define Roll.
Movement of the aircraft about its logitudinal axis. The movement of the wingtips; one up and the other down.
What are the primary flight controls of a fixed wing aircraft?
Ailerons provide control about the longitudinal axis, elevators about the lateral axis, rudder about the vertical axis.
What are the primary flight controls of a rotary wing aircraft?
Collective stick controls the pitch of the rotor blades (up & down) Cyclic stick tilts plane of rotor blade for directional motion, lateral control is provided by foot pedals to control tail rotor.
State the purpose of a flap.
Gives extra lift. Reduces landing speed. Makes short landings and takeoffs easier.
State the purpose of a spoiler.
Decreases wing lift. Destroys th smooth flow of air over the wing surfaces.
State the purpose of speed brakes.
Reduces speed of aircraft. Keeps speed down in dives. Slows speed prior to landing.
State the purpose of slats.
Improves lateral control and handling characteristics. Boundry control layer. Used primarily during carrier operations.
State the purpose of the horizontal stabilizer.
Provides stability about the lateral axis. Longitudinal stability. Elevators attached to it.
State the purpose of the vertical stabilizer.
Maintains stability about the vertical axis. Directional stability. Rudder is attached to it.
State the purpose of the tail rotor.
Counteracts the effects of torque from the main rotor. Contols yaw.
Explain angle of attack.
Angle at which the aircraft meets the flow of air. Angle between the chord line and relative wind. Measured in units.
Explain autorotation.
Allows helo's to land safely w/out using engine power. Uses reverse airflow through rotor blades to reduce rate of descent. Lower collective pitch then raise it convertinf inertia into lift to cushion landing.
State the components of a basic hydraulic system.
P-A-R-T-S. Pump, provides flow; Actuating unit, converts pressure to mechanical energy; Reservoir holds fluid; Tubing, transmits fluid; Selector valve, directs flow.
Explain the purpose of a shock strut.
Absorbs shock that would otherwise be sustained by the airframe.
Explain the purpose of tires.
Allow aircraft to roll easily and provides traction during takeoff and landing.
Explain the purpose of wheel brake assembly
Used to slow and stop aircraft. Prevents rolling when parked.
Explain the purpose of the retracting and extending mechanism.
Electrically or hydraulically extends and retracts landing gear.
Explain the purpose of side struts and supports.
Provides lateral strength/support to the landing gear.
State the safety precautions used around aircraft tires on aircraft.
Approach from fore and aft. Stand to the side when inflating. Deflate before removing from aircraft.
What are the 5 basic sections of a jet engine.
Intake, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine section and exhaust cone. SUCK-SQUEEZE-BANG-TURN-BLOW
Describe a Turbojet engine system.
Projects column of air to the rear at extremely high velocity resulting in forward propulsion of the aircraft.
Describe a turboshaft engine system.
Delivers power through shaft to something other than a prop. Used in helo's.
Describe a turboprop engine system.
Propulsion is accomplished by converting gas energy into mechanical energy to drive a prop. Done by adding more turbine stages. Obtains only small amount of jet thrust.
Describe a turbofan engine system.
Same as turbo prop except prop is replaced with a duct enclosed axial flow fan. Can be part of 1st stage compressor or separate driven by independent turbine. Produces 50% of total thrust.
State the Purpose of an afterburner.
Boosts the normal thrust rating of gas turbine engine during takeoff and combat maneuvering by burning unused air in the exhasut system.
What is the NATO symbol for JP4?
F-40. Never used on ships. Flamespread of 700-800 fpm, low flashpoint of -10For -23C.
What is the NATO symbol for JP5?
F-44. Only fuel used on naval vessels. Flamespread of 100 fpm, flashpoint of 140F or 60C
What is the NATO symbol for JP8?
F-34. Flamespread of 100 fpm and flashpoint of 100F or 40C.
Describe the 3 hazards associated of with jet fuel.
Explosion from fuel fumes, vapor inhalation, toxic contact with skin, eyes,of swallowing.
Describe the symptoms of vapor inhalation.
Nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Can cause death.
What is the purpose of the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU).
Furnishes electrical power when engine-diven generators are not operating or external power unavailable. Most use gas turbine. Provides compressed air for a/c and pneumatic engine starting.
Identify the reasons for Non-Destructive Inspection (NDI).
To find and correct defects before they reach catastrophic proportion.
What are the methods of Non-Destructive Inspection?
Visual, optical, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current, ultrasonic, and radiographic.
How does icing affect the performance of an aircraft?
Decreases lift, increases drag, weight and stalling speed. Accumulation inhibits movable surfaces. Causes increased fuel comsumption/decreased range.
What is the purpose of the pitot-static system?
The pitot-static tube and 3 indicators (altimeter, airspeed indicator and rate of climb indicator) operate on the pressure of the air on the outside of the aircraft.
What is the altimeter?
Shows the height of the aircraft above sea level.
What is the airspeed indicator?
Displays the speed of the aircraft in relation to the air in which it is flying.
What is a Mach number?
Speed compared to the speed of sound in the surrounding medium (local speed)
What is the rate-of-climg indicator?
Shows the rate at which an aircraft is climbing or descending.
What is the attitude indicator?
VGI-vertial gyro indicator. Determines A/C attitude by refering to the horizon.
What is a turn and bank indicator?
Shows the correct execution of a turn or bank and lateral attitude in straight flight.
What are navigation systems?
Systems and instruments that direct, plot and control the course of the A/C. Radios, transmitters, TACAN, LORAN, etc.
What is Identification Friend or Foe?
Electronic system that allow friendly A/C to automatically identify itself. Transponders recieve challenges and tranmists responses.
What is Radi Detection and Ranging (RADAR)?
Device that detects objects at distances not visibly possible. Show range and relative postion. Works on echo principle.
One radar range mile is?
12.36 microseconds is the time it takes for a radio wave to travel out and back for one mile.
What is a magnetic (standby) compass?
Direct-reading compass mounted on the instrument panel and read like the dial of a gauge.
What are communications systems?
Radio equipment that does not rely on interconnecting wire to send messages. Only practical means of communication.
What is the purpose of a bomb?
Designed for release over enemy targets to reduce and neutralize enemy's war potential.
What is a bomb?
Any weapon other than a torpedo, mine, rocket, or missled dropped from an aircraft. Free falling, may be guided or unguided.
What is a rocket?
Weapon containing an explosive section and a propulsion section. More accurate than bombs.
What is a missle?
Weapon containing an explosive section, propulsion section and a guidance section. Can change direction/movement. Classified by range, speed, launch environment, mission and vehicle type.
What is a mine?
Underwter explosive place by ships, subs, or A/C. Explodes only when a target comes near or in contact. Primarily used to defend.
What is a torpedo?
Self-propelled underwater missles used against surface and underwater targets. Primary weapon in antisubmarine warfare.
What is the purpose of a circuit breaker?
Protective device that opens a circuit when current exceeds a predetermined value. Can be reset.
What is the purpose of a fuse?
Protective device inserted in-line with a circuit. Contains metal that breaks or melts when current is increased byond a specific value.
What is Ohm's Law?
E=IR. Voltage equals current times resistance.
What it Volatge (E)?
Driving force behind current.
What is Current (I)?
The flow of electrons. Directly proportional to applied voltage and inversely proportional to circuit resistance.
What is resistance (R)?
The opposing force to the flow of electrons. Inversely proportional to resistance.