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84 Cards in this Set

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DESCRIBE INERTIA AS IT PERTAINS TO MOTION
The willingness of an object to remain at rest or to continue is motion unless acted upon by an outside force
DESCRIBE ACCELERATION AS IT PERTAINS TO MOTION
The rate of change of the speed and/or velocity of matter with time
DESCRIBE SPEED AS IT PERTAINS TO MOTION
The rate of movement or motion in a given amount of time. Speed is the term used when only the rate of movement is meant
DESCRIBE VELOCITY AS IT PERTAINS TO MOTION
The quickness or speed of an object in a given time and direction.
DEFINE NEWTONS FIRST LAW OF MOTION
According to Newton's first law of motion (inertia), an object at rest will remain at rest, or an object in motion will continue in motion at the same speed and in the same direction, until acted upon by an outside force
DEFINE NEWTONS SECOND LAW OF MOTION
The second law of motion (force) states that if an object moving with uniform speed is acted upon by an external force, the change of motion, or acceleration, will be directly proportional to the amount of force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object being moved.
DEFINE NEWTONS THIRD LAW OF MOTION
The third law of motion (action and reaction) states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Define Bernoulli's principle
fluid flowing through a tube reaches a constriction or narrowing of the tube, the speed of the fluid passing through the constriction is increased and its pressure decreased.
Define Bernoulli's principle IN DEPTH
The general lift of an airfoil is dependent upon the airfoil's being able to create circulation in the air stream and develop the lifting pressure over the airfoil surface. As the relative wind strikes the leading edge of the airfoil, the flow of air is split. Part is deflected upward and aft, and the rest is deflected down and aft. Since the upper surface of the wing has camber or a curve on it, the flow over its surface is disrupted, and this causes a wavelike effect to the wing. The lower surface is relatively flat. Lift is accomplished by the difference in the airflow across the airfoil
DEFINE WIND WARNINGS AND TYPES
one knot equals approximately 1.1 mile-per-hour. Destructive weather poses a significant threat to personnel, aircraft, ships, installations, and other resources. Adequate and timely weather warnings, coupled with prompt and effective action by commanders concerned, will minimize loss and damage from destructive weather.

1 SMALL CRAFT
2 GALE
3 STORM
DEFINE TROPICAL CYCLONE WARNINGS AND TYPES
Tropical cyclones are systems of cyclonically rotating winds characterized by a rapid decrease in pressure and increase in winds toward the center of the storm.

1 TROPICAL DEPRESSION
2 TROPICAL STORM
3 HURRICANE/TYPHOON
DEFINE THUNDERSTORM AND TORANDO WARNINGS AND TYPES
Thunderstorms are small scale storms, invariably produced by a cumulonimbus cloud and always accompanied by lightening and thunder.

A tornado is a violently rotating column of air, usually in the form of a funnel, extending from a thunderstorm cloud to the ground.

1 THUNDERSTORM
2 SEVERE THUNDERSTORM
3 TORNADO
DEFINE SMALL CRAFT WIND WARNINGS
Harbor and inland waters warning

for winds, 33 knots or less
DEFINE GALE WIND WARNINGS
Warning for harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas

for winds of 34 to 47 knots
DEFINE STORM WIND WARNINGS
Warning for harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas

winds of 48 knots or greater.
DEFINE TROPICAL DEPRESSION WARNINGS
Warning for land, harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas

for winds of 33 knots or less.
DEFINE TROPICAL STROM WARNINGS
Warning for land, harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas

for winds of 34 to 63 knots.
DEFINE HURRICANE TYPHOON WARNINGS
Warning for land, harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas

winds of 64 knots or greater
DEFINE THUNDERSTORM WARNINGS
Thunderstorms are within 3 miles of the airfield, or in the immediate area.
DEFINE SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WARNINGS
Thunderstorms with wind gusts to 50 knots or greater and/or hail of 3/4 inch in diameter or greater is forecast to impact the warning area.
DEFINE TORNADO WARNINGS
Tornadoes have been sited or detected by RADAR in or adjacent to the warning area, or have a strong potential to develop in
the warning area.
DESCRIBE LIFT
The force that acts, in an upward direction, to support the aircraft in the air

COUNTERACTS THE EFFECTS OF WEIGHT

LIFT > OR = WEIGHT FLIGHT SUSTAINABILITY
DESCRIBE WEIGHT
The force of gravity acting downward on the aircraft and everything on the aircraft
DESCRIBE DRAG
The force that tends to hold an aircraft back.

Drag is caused by the disruption of the air about the wings, fuselage or body, and all protruding objects on the aircraft.

Drag resists motion.
DESCRIBE THRUST
The force developed by the aircraft's engine, and it acts in the forward direction.

Thrust > OR = drag for flight SUSTAINABILITY
DESCRIBE LONGITUDINAL AXIS
An imaginary reference line running down the center of the aircraft between the nose and tail. The axis about which roll occurs.
DESCRIBE LATERAL AXIS
An imaginary reference line running parallel to the wings and about which pitch occurs.
DESCRIBE VERTICAL AXIS
An imaginary reference line running from the top to the bottom of the aircraft. The movement associated with this axis is yaw.
State the three primary movements of aircraft about the axis
1 PITCH
2 ROLL
3 YAW
PITCH
The movement of the aircraft about its lateral axis. The up and down motion of the nose of the aircraft.
ROLL
The movement of the aircraft about its longitudinal axis. The movement of the wing tips; one up and the other down.
YAW
The movement of the aircraft about its vertical axis. The drift, or right or left movement of the nose of the aircraft.
Identify and state the purpose of the primary flight controls for Fixed wing aircraft
ailerons provide control about the longitudinal axis,

elevators provide control about the lateral axis,

rudder provides control about the vertical axis.
Identify and state the purpose of the primary flight controls for Rotary wing aircraft
collective stick controls the pitch of the rotor blades which translates to "up and down".

The cyclic stick tilts the plane of the rotor blades forward, aft or sideways, giving the helicopter its directional motion.

Lateral control is provided using the foot pedals to control the blades on the tail rotor.
STATE THE PURPOSE OF FLAPS
Gives the aircraft extra lift

The purpose is to reduce the landing speed, thereby shortening the length of the landing rollout

facilitate landing in small or obstructed areas

during takeoff serves to reduce the length of the takeoff run.
STATE THE PURPOSE OF A SPOILER
Used to decrease wing lift

design, function, and use vary with different aircraft.

In the retracted position, they are flush with the wing skin

In the raised position, they greatly reduce wing lift by destroying the smooth flow of air over the wing surfaces
STATE THE PURPOSE OF SPEED BRAKES
Hinged or moveable control surfaces REDUCE the speed of aircraft.

keep speed from building too high in dives.

used to slow the speed of the aircraft prior to landing
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF SLATS
Slats are movable control surfaces attached to the leading edge of the wing.

High-energy air is introduced into the boundary layer over the top of the wing

allowing the aircraft to be controlled at airspeeds below the normal landing speed. This is known as boundary layer control

When extended work with flaps increase lift
What is Boundary layer control and its uses?
High-energy air is introduced into the boundary layer over the top of the wing. At low airspeeds improves lateral control handling characteristics. allowing a/c control at airspeeds below normal landing speed.

intended primarily for carrier operations(catapult takeoffs and arrested landings)
What is the purpose of horizontal stabilizers
Provides a/c stability about its lateral axis.

longitudinal stability.

base to which the elevators are attached

some high-performance aircraft, the entire vertical and/or horizontal stabilizer is a movable airfoil.

Without the movable airfoil, the flight control surfaces would lose their effectiveness at extrememly high speeds.
What is the purpose of vertical stabilizers
Maintains the stability of the aircraft about its vertical axis.

directional stability.

serves as the base to which the rudder is attached.
what is the purpose of the tail motor
Mounted vertically on the outer portion of the helicopter's tail section.

counteracts the torque action of the main rotor by producing thrust in the opposite direction.

controls the yawing action of the helicopter.
Explain the term AOA
The angle at which a body, such as an airfoil or fuselage, meets a flow of air. Defined as the angle between the chord line of the wing (an imaginary straight line from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing) and the relative wind. The relative wind is the direction of the airstream in relationship to the wing
Explain the term Auto rotation
A method of allowing a helicopter to land safely from altitude without using engine power by making use of the reversed airflow up through the rotor system to reduce the rate of descent.

Accomplished by lowering collective pitch lever to maintain rotor rpm while helicopter is decreasing in altitude, then increasing collective pitch at a predetermined altitude to convert inertial energy into lift to reduce the rate of descent and cushion the landing.
State the components of a basic hydraulic system
a. A reservoir to hold a supply of hydraulic fluid.

b. A pump to provide a flow of fluid.

c. Tubing to transmit the fluid.

d. A selector valve to direct the flow of fluid.

e. An actuating unit to convert the fluid pressure into useful work
Describe and explain the purpose of the main components of landing gear
a. Shock Strut Assembly - Absorbs the shock that otherwise would be sustained by the airframe.

b. Tires - Allows the aircraft to roll easily and provides traction during takeoff and landing.

c. Wheel brake asembly - Used to slow and stop the aircraft. Also used to prevent the aircraft from rolling while parked.

d. Retracting and extending mechanism - All the necessary hardware to electrically or hydraulically extend and retract the landing gear.

e. Side struts and supports - Provides lateral strength/support for the landing gear
State the safety precautions used when servicing aircraft tires on aircraft.
Modern aircraft wheels and tires are among the most highly stressed parts of the aircraft.

High tire pressure, cyclic loads, corrosion and physical damage contribute to failure of aircraft wheels. The wheel fragments can be propelled several hundred feet. Always approach the tires from fore and aft.

When inflating, stand off to the side. Deflate when removing from the aircraft.
5 basic sections of a jet engine.
a. The intake which is an opening in the front of the aircraft engine that allows outside or ambient air to enter the engine.

b. The compressor which is made of a series of rotating blades and a row of stationary stator vanes. The compressor provides high-pressure air to the combustion chamber (or chambers).

c. The combustion chamber where fuel enters and combines with the compressed air.

d. The turbine section which drives the compressor and accessories by extracting some of the energy and pressure from the combustion gases.

e. The exhaust cone which is attached to the rear of the engine assembly and eliminates turbulence in the emerging jet, thereby giving maximum velocity
Describe the turbojet engine system
Projects a column of air to the rear at an extremely high velocity.

The resulting effect is to propel the aircraft in the opposite or forward direction
Describe the turboshaft engine system
Delivers power through a shaft to drive something other than a propeller.

The power take off may be coupled directly to the engine, but most cases its driven by it's own free turbine located in the exhaust stream that operates independently on the engine.

They have a high power-to-weight ratio and are currently used in helicopters
Describe the turboprop engine system
Propulsion is accomplished by the conversion of the majority of the gas-energy into mechanical power to drive a propeller.

This is done by the addition of more turbine stages.

Only a small amount of jet thrust is obtained on a turbo prop engine
Describe the turbofan engine system
Basically the same as a turbo prop except that the propeller is replaced by a duct-enclosed axial-flow fan.

The fan can be part of the first stage compressor or mounted as a separate set of fan blades driven by an independent turbine depending on the fan design, it will produce somewhere around 50 percent of the engine's total thrust.
State the purpose of the afterburner
Used during takeoff and combat maneuvering to boost the normal thrust rating of a gas turbine engine through additional burning of the remaining unused air in the exhaust section
JP4-

NATO symbols and briefly explain the characteristics and reasons for use
NATO Code F-40

Has a flamespread rate of 700-800 feet per minute

low flashpoint of -10 degrees F or -23 degrees C.

Never used on ships.

normally cause an engine to operate with a lower exhaust gas temperature (EGT), slower acceleration, and lower engine RPM.
JP5-

NATO symbols and briefly explain the characteristics and reasons for use
NATO Code F-44

Has a flamespread rate of 100
feet per minute,

flashpoint of 140 degrees F or 60 degrees C.

only approved fuel for use aboard naval vessels.

The lowest flashpoint considered safe for use aboard naval vessels is 140 degrees F.

Navy's primary jet fuel.
JP8-

NATO symbols and briefly explain the characteristics and reasons for use
NATO Code F-34

Has a flamespread rate of 100 feet per minute,

flashpoint of 100 degrees F or 40 degrees C
Describe the 3 hazards associated with jet fuel
Explosion from fuel fumes, vapor inhalation, and toxic contact with skin, eyes, or swallowing can cause illness or death
Describe the symptoms of fuel vapor inhalation
The symptoms include nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Fuel vapor inhalation can cause death.
Explain the purpose of the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
These power units furnish electrical power when engine-driven generators are not operating or when external power is not available.

Most units use a gas turbine to drive the generator. The gas turbine provides compressed air for air conditioning and pneumatic engine starting.

This makes the aircraft independent of the need for ground power units to carry out its mission.
Identify the reasons for and methods of Non-Destructive Inspection (NDI)
It is essential that defects be found and corrected before they reach catastrophic proportion.

NDI can provide 100 percent sampling with no affect to the use of the part or system being inspected.

Methods used may include visual, optical, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current, ultrasonic, radiographic, LOVE RUM

NDI is the practice of evaluating a part or sample of material without impairing its future usefullness.
Discuss icing and its effects on the performance of naval aircraft
Ice on

airframe-decreases lift and increases drag, weight, and stalling speed.

movable surfaces-control of the aircraft.

blades of a propeller-efficiency is decreased or further power is demanded of the engine to maintain flight.

Most aircraft have sufficient reserve power to fly with a heavy load of ice

airframe icing is a serious problem because it results in increased fuel consumption and decreased range-may result in loss of power.
What are possible things icing on an aircraft can cause
loss of engine power,

aerodynamic efficiency,

loss of proper operation of control surfaces,

brakes and landing gear,

loss of outside vision,

false instrument indications,

loss of radio
State the purpose of Pitot-Static
operate on the principle of the barometer

tube or line from the pitot tube to the airspeed indicator applies the pressure of the outside air to the indicator. The indicator is calibrated so various air pressures cause different readings. The pitot tube is mounted on the outside of the aircraft at a point where air is least likely to be turbulent. It points in a forward direction parallel to the aircraft's line of flight

Static means stationary or not changing. The static port introduces outside air, at its normal outside atmospheric pressure, as though the aircraft were standing still in the air. The static line applies this outside air to the airspeed indicator, altimeter, and rate-of-climb indicator.
State the purpose of Airspeed indicator
displays the speed of the aircraft in relation to the air in which it is flying.

Mach number gives the speed compared to the speed of sound in the surrounding medium (local speed)
State the purpose of Altimeter
shows the height of the aircraft above sea level.

The face of the instrument is calibrated so the counter or pointer displays the correct altitude of the aircraft.
State the purpose of Rate of climb Indicator
shows the rate at which an aircraft is climbing or descending
State the purpose of Attitude indicator
also called-vertical gyro indicator or VGI.

shows the pilot the relative position of the aircraft compared to the earth's horizon

A pilot determines attitude by referring to the horizon. Except when not visible use attitude indicator
State the purpose of Turn and Bank Indicator
Shows the correct execution of a turn and bank. It also shows the lateral attitude of the aircraft in straight flight.

The turn indicator is a gyro mounted in a frame that is pivoted to turn on a longitudinal axis. The direction of the turn is shown on the dial by a pointer. The gyro consists of a glass ball that moves in a curved glass tube filled with a liquid. When the pilot is executing a properly banked turn, the ball stays in the center position. If the ball moves from the center, it shows the aircraft is slipping to the inside or outside of the turn
State the purpose of Navigation systems
Navigation systems and instruments direct, plot, and control the course or position of the aircraft. These may include the radios, transmitters, TACAN, LORAN, etc
State the purpose of Identification Friend or Foe IFF
IFF is an electronic system that allows a friendly craft to identify itself automatically before approaching near enough to threaten the security of other naval units.

A transponder in the friendly aircraft receives a radio-wave challenge. The transponder transmits a response to a proper challenge.

All operational aircraft and ships of the armed forces carry transponders to give their identity when challenged.
State the purpose of RADAR Radio detection and ranging
A radio device used to detect objects at distances much greater than is visually possible. Detectable objects include aircraft, ships, land, clouds, and storms. Radar also shows their range and relative position. Radar works on a echo principle. Sound waves travel out and by knowing the speeds and the time it takes for them to return as an echo, the distance can be measures
State the purpose of Magnetic standby compass
A direct-reading magnetic compass is mounted on the instrument panel. The face of the compass is read like the dial of a gauge
State the purpose of communication systems
Radio equipment does not require interconnecting wires between the sending and receiving stations. It is the only practical means of communication with moving vehicles, such as ships or aircraft. Modern aircraft use navigation aids such as simple radio direction finders to complex navigational systems
State the purpose of Bombs
Bombs are free-falling explosive weapons and may be unguided or "smart" or guided.

Any weapon other than a torpedo, mine, rocket or missile, dropped from an aircraft.

Designed for release over enemy targets to reduce and neutralize the enemy's war potential by destructive explosion, fire, nuclear reaction, etc.
State the purpose of Rockets
A weapon containing an explosive section and a propulsion section. unable to change its direction of movement once fired.

It can be launched from an aircraft without the need of heavy or complex gun platforms and without violent recoil.

Usually dropped at close range higher accuracy than a bomb
State the purpose of Missiles
A vehicle containing an explosive section, propulsion section, and guidance section.

able to change direction or movement after being fired.

Missiles are classified according to their range, speed, launch environment, mission and vehicle type.
State the purpose of Mines
An underwater explosive put into position by surface ships, submarines, or aircraft.

explodes only when a target comes near or in contact with it. primary objective is to effectively defend or control vital straits, port approaches, convoy anchorages and seaward coastal barriers.
State the purpose of Torpedos
Self-propelled underwater missiles used against surface and underwater targets.

primary weapon employed in antisubmarine warfare.

designed to search, detect, attack and destroy submarines and surface ships.
Explain the purpose of a circuit breaker
A protective device that opens a circuit when the current exceeds a predetermined value. Circuit breakers can be reset.
Explain the purpose of a fuse
A protective device inserted in-line with a circuit. It contains a metal that will melt or break when current is increased beyond a specified value, thus disconnecting the circuit from its power source to prevent damage.
Explain the term voltage
The "driving force" behind current. Voltage, as applied to Ohm's Law, can be stated to be the base value in determining unknown circuit values. Designated by the letter (E)
Explain the term Current
The flow of electrons. Ohm's Law states that current is directly proportional to the applied voltage and inversely proportional to the circuit resistance. Designated by the letter (I).
Explain the term resistance
The opposing force to the flow of electrons. As stated in Ohm's Law, current is inversely proportional to resistance. This means, as the resistance in a circuit increases, the current decreases proportionally. Designated by the letter (R).
what is OHMs law
E=IR

voltage=(current)(resistance)