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11 Cards in this Set

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ABG normal values
pH= 7.35 - 7.45
PaO2 = 80-100mmHg
PaCO2 = 35 - 45mmHg
HCO3 = 22 - 26 mEq/L
SaO2 = 93-100%
Respiratory Acidosis
Respiratory Alkalosis
CO2 acts as acid in human body

Resp Acidosis = incr in PaCO2 in presence of acidosis (pH> 7.45)

Resp Alk= decr in PaCO2 in presence of alkalosis (ph<7.35)
Metabolic Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
HCO3 = base solution

Metabolic acidosis = decr in HCO3 in acidotic state

Metabolic alkalosis=>HCO3 in alkalotic state
Compensation
In order to recognize compensation, look for changes in buffering system that is not part of the primary problem

Ex: DM pt in ketoacidosis
pH=7.29; HCO3=16 -- metabolic acidosis
ABGs show PaCO2=27; pt has incr RR to blow off CO2.
**This creates a resp alkalosis wh is opposite of meta acidosis
Compensation
Buffer system changes in same direction as primary problem

Ex: pH=7.25; PaCO2=58 = resp acid. HCO3= 30

the other buffering system is same direction as primary prob. PaCO2 is elevated and compensatory HCO3 is up!

Both are elevated, but we know resp acidosis because the pH =7.27!!!
ABG analysis
1) Is pH acidotic/alkalotic
2) What is the primary problem?
--if acidotic w/high PaCO2 then Respiratory
-- if acidotic w/low HCO3 then Metabolic
--if alkalotic w/low PaCO2 then Respiratory
-- if alkalotic w/high HCO3 then Metabolic
Case Studies
1) pH=7.17; PaCO2=68; HCO3=22 decreased LOC, postop, MSO4 for pain

2) pH=7.37; PaCO2=29; hCO3=17 diarrhea x4d, incr RR

3) pH=7.52, PaCO2=35; HCO3=29 POD 5, NGT w/output>900cc, decrease in MS

3)
Case Study answers
1) Uncompensation Resp acid

2) Compensated Meta acid

3) Uncompensated Meta alka
Clinical Manifestations:
Respiratory acidosis
*PaCO2; HCO3 nml or > c/renal compensation

*vasodilation; dysrhthmia; tachycardia; somnolence; < ventilation
Clinical Manifestations:
Respiratory Alkalosis
* pH; PaCO2; HCO3 nml or < secondary to compensation

*N/V; tingling fingers
Clinical Manifestations:
Metabolic acidosis
*hyperkalemia; shift of acid to ICF & K to ECF

* anorexia; N/V

* warm, flushed skin

*dysrhytmia; CNS dysfunction

*HA; diarrhea; tremors